Advertisement

The Indo-Islamic Garden: Conflict, Conservation, and Conciliation in Gujarat, India

  • James L. Wescoat Jr

I begin with the passage from Rajmohan Gandhi’s Revenge and Reconciliation: Understanding South Asian History that inspires this chapter: “A word, finally, on Delhi, for we started this study by noting Delhi’s djinns, its great load of unrepented cruelty and unshared sorrow. . . . Can Delhi’s accumulated offences be washed away? Can some atonement or penance – or some God-sent blessing or grace – expiate the guilt of centuries, and generate a breeze of forgiveness that blows away the smells of torture and revenge?” (Gandhi 1999: 410). A paragraph later, Gandhi suggests an answer, “Every tree planted, or cubic foot of water conserved, is a celebration of life, a proclamation of the worth of the future, and a garden or a river may calm sad or angry hearts. Every caring act – of fellowship, considerateness, nursing, apology, forgiveness, greening, or flowering – perhaps heals something of Delhi’s torment, maybe calms one of its djinns, and a healing process in Delhi might speak to all of South Asia” (Gandhi 1999: 410) – and the world beyond. This chapter on planting trees and conserving water at the newly designated World Heritage Site of Champaner–Pavagadh in the state of Gujarat, which was shaken by violent cultural conflict in 2002, strives to envision new linkages between cultural landscape conservation and conciliation (Fig. 1).

Keywords

Cultural Heritage World Heritage Heritage Site World Heritage Site Hague Convention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aga Khan Trust for Culture, 3 June 2002, Babur Gardens Rehabilitation Project in Kabul. Aga Khan Trust for Culture, Geneva.Google Scholar
  2. —, April 2003, Revitalization of the Gardens of Emperor Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi, India. http://www.akdn.org/aktc/Humayun%20Brief%2004-2003.pdf (12 July 2006).
  3. Agarwal, Arun, and Sunita Narain, 1999, Dying Wisdom: The Rise, Fall and Potential of India’s Traditional Water Harvesting Systems. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  4. Ahmed, Sara, 2004, Sustaining Peace, Re-Building Livelihoods: The Gujarat Harmony Project. Gender and Development 12(3): 94-102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amin, Shahid, 2002, Sagas of Victory, Memories of Defeat? The Long Afterlife of an IndoMuslim Warrior Saint, 1033-2000. In Experiments with Truth: Documenta 11 Platform 2, edited by Okwui Enwezor, pp. 97-119. Hatje Cantz, Oestfildern-Ruit.Google Scholar
  6. Archaeological Survey of India and Heritage Trust (Baroda), January 2002, Champaner- Pavagadh World Heritage Site Nomination. Heritage Trust, Baroda.Google Scholar
  7. Asher, Catherine B., 2004, Uneasy Bedfellows: Islamic Art and the Politics of Indian Nationalism. Religion and the Arts 3(1): 37-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baxi, U., 2002, The Second Gujarat Catastrophe. Economic and Political Weekly 37: 3519-3531.Google Scholar
  9. Bayly, C. A., 1985, The Prehistory of ‘Communalism’? Religious Conflict in India 1700-1860. Modern Asian Studies 19(2): 177-203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhatt, Sheela, 2002, When a Town in Gujarat Refused to Burn. Rediff. http://in. rediff.com/news/2002/jul/31spec.htm (12 July 2006).
  11. Boulding, Elise, 2000, Cultures of Peace: The Hidden Side of History. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse.Google Scholar
  12. Brass, Paul R., 2003, The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India. University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  13. Bunsha, Dionne, 2002, Dazed, but determined: The Muslim victims of the communal violence, though still hounded out of their homes, are determined to vote. Frontline 19(25): 7-20 December 2002. http://www.flonnet.com/fl1925/stories/20021220007301300.htm (12 July 2006).
  14. —, 2003, Voting for survival. Frontline 19(26): 21 December 2002-3 January 2003. http://www. flonnet.com/fl1926/stories/20030103008012700.htm (12 July 2006).
  15. —, 2006, Scarred: Experiments with Violence in Gujarat. Penguin Books, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  16. Commentary on the Hague Convention of 14 May 1954. UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  17. Communalism Combat, April 2003, Special Issue: Gujarat, A Year Later. http://www.sabrang. com/cc/archive/2003/apr03/index.html (12 July 2006).
  18. Concerned Citizens’ Tribunal, 2003, Crime Against Humanity [Iyer commission report], 2 vols. Citizens for Justice and Peace, Mumbai. http://www.sabrang.com/tribunal/tribunal1.pdf (12 July 2006).
  19. Conservation Architects Meet [CAM], 2004, CAM 2004: First Report. http://www. intach.org/pdf/ report_cam2004.pdf
  20. Das, Veena, ed., 1990, Mirrors of Violence: Communities, Riots and Survivors in South Asia. Oxford University Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
  21. Das, Veena, and A. Kleinman, 2001, Remaking a World: Violence, Social Suffering and Recovery. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  22. Dreze, Jean, May 2003, Gujarat Revisited. Lines Magazine. http://www.lines-magazine.org/ textmay03/dreze.htm (12 July 2006).
  23. Elliott, H. M., 1976 reprint, Mahmud’s Expeditions to India. In The History of India as Told by its own Historians, edited by H. M Elliott and J. Dowson. Islamic Book Service, Lahore.Google Scholar
  24. Engineer, Ashgar A., 1984, Communal Riots in Post-Independence India. Sangam, Hyderabad.Google Scholar
  25. Ferishta, Mahomed K., 1977 reprint, History of the Rise of Mahomedan Power in India, vol. 4, ch. 4. “History of the Kings of Gujarat,” translated by John Briggs. Sang-e-Meel, Lahore.Google Scholar
  26. Foote, Kenneth, 2003, Shadowed Ground: America’s Landscapes of Violence and Tragedy, 2nd edition. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  27. Forum Against Oppression of Women, 2002, Genocide in Rural Gujarat: The Experience of Dahod District. http://www.onlinevolunteers.org/gujarat/reports/rural/rural-gujarat.pdf (12 July 2006).
  28. Freitag, Sandra, 1989, Collective Action and Community: Public Arenas and the Emergence of Communalism in North India. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  29. Gaborieau, Marc, 1985, From al-Beruni to Jinnah: Idiom, Ritual and Ideology of the HinduMuslim Confrontation in South Asia. Anthropology Today 1(3): 7-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gandhi, Rajmohan, 1999, Revenge and Reconciliation: Understanding South Asian History. Penguin Books, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  31. Goetz, H., 1949, Pawagadh-Champaner. Journal of the Gujarat Research Society XI(2): 1-67.Google Scholar
  32. Gossman, Patricia A., 1999, Riots and Victims: Violence and the Construction of Communal Identity Among Bengali Muslims, 1905-1947. Westview, Boulder.Google Scholar
  33. Gottschalk, Peter, 2000, Beyond Hindu and Muslim: Multiple Identity in Narratives from Village India. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Government of Gujarat, 2004, Project: Heritage Walk at Champaner Pavagadh (Central Gujarat). http://www.gujarattourism.com/opportunities/Proposal_Tourism_14.html (12 July 2006).
  35. Government of India, 1976, Constitution, Part IV A. (42nd Amendment 1976) Art. 51 A. “It is the fundamental duty and responsibility of every citizen of India . . . (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture (g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.”Google Scholar
  36. Gulbadan Begum, 1987 reprint, Humayun-nama, translated by A. S. Beveridge. Sang-e Meel, Lahore.Google Scholar
  37. Heesterman, J. C., 1985, The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual, Kingship, and Society. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  38. Heritage Trust and Archaeological Survey of India, 2002, Champaner-Pavagadh World Heritage Nomination. Heritage Trust, Vadodara.Google Scholar
  39. Human Rights Watch, April 2002, We Have No Orders To Save You: State Participation and Complicity in Communal Violence in Gujarat. Human Rights Watch, New York.Google Scholar
  40. —, July 2003a, Compounding Injustice: The Government’s Failure to Redress Massacres in Gujarat. Human Rights Watch, New York.Google Scholar
  41. —, 5 September 2003b, India: Protect Gujarat Activists Now. Human Rights Watch, New York. —, 14 April 2004, India Protect Witnesses in Gujarat, Conduct Investigations. Human Rights Watch, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Indian Muslim Council - USA, May 2006, Vadodara 2006: Manufacturing Violence and the Politics of Demolition [Compilation of articles on violence following demolition of Syed Rashiduddin Chisti Dargah]. http://www.imc-usa.org/digest/special/2006/vadodara.violence. htm (12 July 2006).
  43. INTACH, 4 November 2004, Charter for Conservation of Unprotected Architectural Herit age and Sites in India. INTACH, New Delhi. http://www.intach.org/pdf/charter.pdf (12 July 2006).
  44. INTACH-AusHeritage, 2004, Workshop on Indian Charter for Conservation Held at INTACH, New Delhi, March 24-27, 2004; and Some Aspects of a Charter Drafted During the Aus Heritage - INTACH Workshop. INTACH, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  45. International Initiative for Justice in Gujarat, December 2002, Interim Report. http://www.onlinevol-unteers.org/gujarat/reports/iijg/interimreport.htm (12 July 2006).
  46. Kakar, Sudhir, 1996, The Colors of Violence: Cultural Identities, Religion, and Conflict. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  47. Khan, Ali Muhammad, 1965, Trans, Mirat-i-Ahmadi. A Persian History of Gujarat, translated by M. F. Lokhandwala. Oriental Institute, Baroda.Google Scholar
  48. Kotwal, Navaz, 2002, Justice For All - Rasoolbhai’s Wife. http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/artres/justice%20for%20all.pdf (12 July 2006).
  49. Layton, Robert, Peter G. Stone, and Julian Thomas, eds., 2000, Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  50. Lowenthal, David, 1998, The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  51. Mehta, R. N., 1977, Prehistoric Champaner: A Report on the Explorations of Prehistoric Sites Around Pavagadh Hill. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Faculty of Arts, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara.Google Scholar
  52. —, [1986] 2002, Champaner: A Mediaeval Capital. Heritage Trust and ASI, Baroda.Google Scholar
  53. Mehta, Deepa, and Roma Chatterjee, 2001, Boundaries, Names, Alterities: A Case Study of a ‘Communal Riot’ in Dharavi, Bombay. In Remaking a World: Violence, Social Suffering and Recovery, edited by Veena Das and A. Kleinman, pp. 201-249. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  54. Midday, 2004, Congress Takes Out Roadshow in Godhra. http://sify.com/news/politics/fullstory. php?id=13443930 (12 July 2006).
  55. Modi, Sumesh, 2002, Water Intelligent City: Champaner-Pavagadh. Landscapes of Water: History, Innovation and Sustainable Design, vol. 1, 113ff pages, edited by E. A. Fratino et al. Politecnico di Bari, Bari.Google Scholar
  56. Oza, Nandini, 29 February 2004, Godhra is More than a Memory: Two Years have Passed Since the Post-Godhra Riots. The Victims and Their Families have had to Carry on with Their Lives. Today They are Grappling with a Social and Economic Boycott. Deccan Herald. http://www. deccanherald.com/deccanherald/feb292004/sl2.asp (12 July 2006).
  57. Pandey, G., 1990, The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India. Oxford University Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
  58. People for Heritage Concern, 2001, Cultural Resource Information System - Inventory of Built Heritage of Champaner-Pavagadh. Heritage Trust, Baroda.Google Scholar
  59. People’s Union for Democratic Rights, May 2002, Maaro, Kaapo, Baalo!: State, Society and Communalism in Gujarat. http://www.pucl.org/Topics/Religion-communalism/2002/maro_ kapo_balo.pdf (12 July 2006).
  60. Rediff, 2006, The Ayodhya Homepage. http://us.rediff.com/news/ayodhya.htm(12 July 2006).
  61. Ruggles, D. Fairchild, 2000, What’s Religion Got To Do With It? A Skeptical Look at Symbolism in Mughal and Rajput Gardens, Dak: The Newsletter of the American Institute of Indian Studies. 4: 4-14.Google Scholar
  62. Schon, Donald, 1990, Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Toward a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  63. Seminar Education Foundation, 6-9 February 2004, Marwar Initiative. A Framework for Cooperation for Conservation, Management and Development of India’s Heritage. Sardar Samand, Rajasthan. http://www.india-seminar.com/2004/542/542%20 document.htm (12 July 2006).
  64. Sikander bin Muhammad (Manjhu), [1611] 1886 edition, Mirat-i Sikandari. In The Local Muhammadan Dynasties: Gujarat, edited by E. C. Bayley based on a translation by J. Dowson. W. H. Allen, London.Google Scholar
  65. Sinha, Amita, 2004, Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park: A Design Approach. International Journal of Heritage Studies 10(2): 117-28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sinha, Amita, Gary Kesler, and Terence Harkness, 2002, Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat, India. Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois, Champaign.Google Scholar
  67. Sinha, Amita, Gary Kesler, D. Fairchild Ruggles, and James L. Wescoat Jr., 2003, Champaner-Pavagadh Cultural Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois, Champaign.Google Scholar
  68. — , 2004, Champaner-Pavagadh, Gujarat, India: Challenges and Responses in Cultural Heritage Planning and Design. Tourism Recreation Research 29(3): 75-78.Google Scholar
  69. Social Science Research Council, 19 December 2002, The International Initiative for Justice in Gujarat: An Interim Report. http://www.ssrc.org (12 July 2006).
  70. Sreenivas, Janyala, 15 October 2004a, This Navratri, Gujarat does a ‘Tolerant’ Rewrite: Muslim Shrines . . . Unlike Last Year, Muslim Shrines, or What’s Left of Them Post-Riots, Figure in its Spiritual Tourism Package. Indian Express. http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/full_story.php?content_id=57003 (12 July 2006).
  71. —, 15 October 2004b, Modi Government Goes Secular. Express India. http://www.expressindia. com/fullstory.php?newsid=37288 (15 January 2007).
  72. Taneja, Nalini, 14 November 2004, Justice for Gujarat Victims: Whose Responsibility? People’s Democracy. Weekly Organ of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). XXVIII: 46.Google Scholar
  73. Thakur, Nalini, 1987, Champaner: Draft Action Plan for Integrated Conservation. Heritage Trust, Baroda.Google Scholar
  74. —, 2000, The Archaeological Park as a Tool for Integrated Protecting Heritage Management with Planning Process: The Case of the Deserted 15th Century Capital Site, Champaner-Pavagadh, Gujarat. Conference on Simplification of Urban Development Control, Goa.Google Scholar
  75. —, 2002, Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park: An Integrated Approach with Comprehensive Protection and Management. Unpublished Paper. Copy on file with author.Google Scholar
  76. —, 2004, The ‘Architectural Knowledge Systems’ Approach as a Solution for the Regeneration and Conservation of Indian Built Heritage. http://www.architexturez.net/+/subject-listing/000065. shtml (12 July 2006).
  77. Times of India, 7 October 2004, Muslims Still Face Economic Boycott in Pavagadh. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/877252.cms (12 July 2006).
  78. Toman, J., 1996, The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.Google Scholar
  79. United Nations, 1954a, Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Done at The Hague, 14 May 1954. Entered in force 7 August 1956.Google Scholar
  80. —, 1954b, X. Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Done at The Hague, 14 May 1954. Entered in force 7 August 1956.Google Scholar
  81. —, 1999, X. Second Protocol to The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 26 March 1999.Google Scholar
  82. —, 2003, Draft Declaration Concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage. UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  83. Varshney, Ashutosh, 2002, Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  84. Vora, Batuk, 7 May 2004, Gujarat Relief Camps Being Closed Down. Milli Gazette. http://www. milligazette.com/Archives/01072002/0107200291.htm (12 July 2006).
  85. Waldman, Amy, 2002, A Secular India, Or Not? At Strife Scene, Vote is a Test. The New York Times. 12 December 2002, p.18.Google Scholar
  86. Wescoat, James L. Jr., 1990, Gardens of Invention and Exile: The Precarious Context of Mughal Garden Design during the Reign of Humayun (1530-1556). Journal of Garden History 10: 106-116.Google Scholar
  87. —, 1991, Gardens of Conquest and Transformation: Lessons from the Earliest Mughal Gardens in India. Landscape Journal 10(5): 105-114.Google Scholar
  88. —, 1992, Expanding the Range of Choice in Water Resource Geography. Progress in Human Geography 11: 41-59.Google Scholar
  89. —, 1997, Mughal Gardens and Geographic Sciences, Then and Now. In Gardens in the Time of the Great Muslim Empires: Theory and Design, special issue of Muqarnas, edited by A. Petruccioli, pp. 187-202. E. J. Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar
  90. —, 1999, Mughal Gardens: The Re-emergence of Comparative Possibilities and the Wavering of Practical Concerns. In Perspectives on Garden Histories, edited by Michel Conan, pp. 107-126. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  91. Wilkinson, Steven I, 2004, Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • James L. Wescoat Jr
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations