Advertisement

Social Capital and Health-Related Behaviors

  • Martin Lindström

Abstract

Behaviors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity (or a sedentary lifestyle) and diet are major determinants of health because of their causal effects on cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and many other chronic diseases (The World Health Report, 2002). Some other health-related behaviors such as the abuse of narcotic drugs (which lead to premature death for a variety of reasons) and sexual behaviors (which lead to sexually transmitted diseases/infections) are mainly causally linked to health for other reasons.

Keywords

Physical Activity Social Capital Smoking Cessation Income Inequality Social Cohesion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, D. B., Orleans, C. T., Niaura, R., Goldstein, M., Prochaska, J., & Velicer, W. (1996). Integrating individual and public health perspectives for treatment of tobacco dependence under managed health care: a combined stepped-care and matching model. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 290–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adimora, A. A., & Schoenbach, V. J. (2005). Social context, sexual networks, and racial disparities in rates of sexually transmitted infections. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 191, S115–S122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali, S. M., & Lindström, M. (2006). Psychosocial work conditions and leisure time physi-cal activity: A population-based study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 34(2), 209–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Berkman, L. F., & Syme, S. L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance and mortality: A nine-year follow-up study of Alameda county residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 186–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhattacharya, G. (2005). Social capital and HIV risks among acculturating Asian Indian men in New York City. AIDS Education and Prevention, 17(6), 555–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjarnason, T., Andersson, B., Choquet, M., Elekes, Z., Morgan, M., & Rapinett, G. (2003). Alcohol culture, family structure and adolescent alcohol use: multilevel modeling of frequency of heavy drinking among 15–16 year old students in 11 European countries. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(2), 200–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaxter, M. (1990). Health and lifestyles. London, New York: Tavistock and Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Blomgren, J., Martikainen, P., Makela, P., & Valkonen, T. (2004). The effects of regional characteristics on alcohol-related mortality– a register-based multilevel analysis of 1.1 million men. Social Science and Medicine, 58(12), 2523–2535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. British Medical Association. (1995). Alcohol: Guidelines on sensible drinking. London: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol alert No. 16 PH 315.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, T. T., Scheffler, R. M., Seo, S., & Reed, M. (2006). The empirical relationship between community social capital and the demand for cigarettes. Health Economics, 15 (11), 159–72.Google Scholar
  12. Burton, N. W., Turrell, G., Oldenburg. (2003). Participation in recreational: why do socioe-conomic groups differ? Health Education and Behavior, 30(2), 225–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cassel, J. (1976). The contribution of the social environment to host resistance: The Fourth Wade Hampton Frost Lecture. American Journal of Epidemiology, 104(2), 107–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Caughy, M. O., O’Campo, P. J., & Muntaner, C. (2003). When being alone might be better: neighbourhood poverty social capital and child mental health. Social Science and Med-icine, 57, 227–237.Google Scholar
  15. Chaix, B., Guilbert, P., & Chauvin, P. (2004). A multilevel analysis of tobacco use and tobacco consumption levels in France: are there any combination risk groups? European Journal of Public Health, 14(2), 186–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chilcoat, H. D., & Anthony, J. C. (1996). Impact of parent monitoring on initiation of drug use through late adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 91–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chinn, D. J., White, M., Harland, J., Drinkwater, C., & Raybould, S. (1999). Barriers to physical activity and socioeconomic position: Implications for health promotion. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53, 191–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Coleman, J. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120.Google Scholar
  19. Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Princeton: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Coleman, J., & Hoffer, T. (1987). Public and private high schools: The impact of commu-nities. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  21. Crone, M. R., Reijneveld, S. A., Wilhelmsen, M. C., van Leerdam, F. J., Spruijt, R.D., & Sing, R. A. (2003). Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: A school based intervention study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57(9), 675–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Crosby, R. A., Holtgrave, D. R., DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., & Gayle, J. A. (2003). Social capital as a predictor of adolescent’s sexual risk behaviour: A state level exploratory. AIDS Behavior, 7, 245–252.Google Scholar
  23. De Irala-Estevez, J., Groth, M., Johansson, L., Oltersdorf, U., Prattala, R., & Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A. (2000). A systematic review of socio-economic differences in food habits in Europe: Consumption of fruit and vegetables. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54, 706–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Droomers, M., Schrijvers, C. T., van de Mheen, H., & Machenbach, J. P. (1998). Educa-tional differences in leisure-time physical activity: A descriptive and explanatory study. Social Medicine and Science, 47, 1665–1676.Google Scholar
  25. Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2002). A multilevel analysis of neighbor-hood context and youth alcohol and drug problems. Prevention Science, 3(2), 125–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Duncan, C., Jones, K., & Moon, G. (1999). Smoking and deprivation: Are there neigh-bourhood effects? Social Science and Medicine, 48(4), 497–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dupre, D., Miller, N., Gold, M., & Rospenda, K. (1995). Initiation and progression of alco-hol, marijuana and cocaine use among adolescent abusers. American Journal of Addic-tion, 4, 43–48.Google Scholar
  28. Ecob, R., & MacIntyre, S. (2000). Small area variations in health related behaviours: Do these depend on the behaviour itself, its measurement, or on personal characteristics? Social Science and Medicine, 6(4), 261–274.Google Scholar
  29. Elgar, F. J., Roberts, C., Parry-Langdon, N., & Boyce, W. (2005). Income inequality and alcohol use: a multilevel analysis of drinking and drunkenness in 34 countries. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 15(3), 245–250.Google Scholar
  30. Emmons, K. M. (2000). Health behaviors in a social context. In L. F. Berkman & I. Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology (pp. 242–266). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Farley, T. A. (2006). Sexually transmitted dieases in the southeastern United States: Loca-tion, race, and social context. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(7 Suppl), S58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Farrelly, M. C., Pechacek, T. F., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2003). The impact of tobacco control program expenditures on aggregate cigarette sales 1981–2000. Journal of Health Economics, 22(5), 843–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fenton, K. A., Mercer, C. H., McManus, S., Erens, B., Macdowall, W., & Wellings, K. et al. (2005). Sexual behaviour in Britain: ethnic variations in high-risk sexual behav-iour and STI acquisition risk. Lancet, 365, 1246–1255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fisher, K. J., Li, F., Michael, Y., & Cleveland, M. (2004). Neighborhood influences on physical activity among older adults: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Aging and Phys-ical Activity, 11, 45–63.Google Scholar
  35. Fukuda, Y., Nakamura, K., & Takamo, T. (2005). Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women’s urban residence: A multi-level analysis in Japan. BMC Public Health, 5(1), 53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust. The social virtues and the creation of prosperity. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo, Singapore: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  37. Fukuyama, F. (1999). The great disruption. Human nature and the reconstitution of social order. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
  38. Gilvarry, E. (2000). Substance abuse in young people. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 55–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Glasgow, R. E., Terborg, J. R., Hollis, J. F., Severson, H. H., & Boles, S. M. (1995). Take heart: Results from the initial phase of a worksite wellness program. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 209–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Glendinning, A., Shucksmith, J., & Hendry, L. (1994). Social class and adolescent smok-ing behaviour. Social Science and Medicine, 38, 1449–1460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak of ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–1380.Google Scholar
  42. Greiner, K. A., Chaoyang, L., Kawachi, I., Hunt, D. C., & Ahluwalia, J. S. (2004). The relationships of social participation and community ratings to health behaviors in areas with high and low population density. Social Science and Medicine, 59, 2303–2312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gulliver, S. B., Hughes, J. R., Solomon, L. J., & Dey, A. N. (1995). An investigation of self-efficacy, partner supportand daily stresses as predictors of relapse to smoking in self-quitters. Addiction, 90, 767–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Haapanen, N., Miilunpalo, S., Vuori, I., Oja, P., & Pasanen, M. (1996). Characteristics of leisure time physical activity associated with decreased risk of premature all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. American Journal of Epidemiol-ogy, 143, 870–880.Google Scholar
  45. Hajek, P., West, R., & Wilson, J. (1995). Regular smokers, lifetime very light smokers and reduced smokers. Comparison of psychosocial and smoking characteristics in women. Health Psychology, 14, 195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hart, C., Ecob, R., & Smith, G. D. (1997). People, places and coronary heart disease risk factors: a multilevel analysis of the Scottish Heart Health Study Archive. Social Science and Medicine, 45(6), 893–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Holtgrave, D. R., & Crosby, R. A. (2003). Social capital, poverty, and income inequality as predictors of gonorrea, syphilis, Chlamydia and AIDS in the United States. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 79, 62–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Sci-ence, 214, 540–545.Google Scholar
  49. Humpel, N., Owen, N., & Leslie, E. (2002). Environmental factors associated with adults’ participation in physical: A review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(3), 188–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Institute of Medicine. (2003). The future of the public’s health in the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies of Press.Google Scholar
  51. Jarvis, M. J., & Wardle, J. (2006). Social patterning of individual health: the case of ciga-rette smoking. In M. Marmot & R. G. Wilkinson (Eds.), Social determinants of health (2nd edition, pp. 224–237). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Johnell, K., Lindström, M., Sundquist, J., Eriksson, C., & Merlo, J. (2006). Individual characteristics, area social participation, and primary non-concordance with medica-tion: A multilevel analysis. BioMedCentral- Public Health, 6, 52.Google Scholar
  53. Johnson, A. M., Wadsworth, J., & Wellings Field, J. (1994). Sexual attitudes and lifestyles. Oxford: Bradford Academic Press.Google Scholar
  54. Johnson, A. M., Mercer, C. H., & Cassell, J. A. (2006). Social determinants, sexual behav-iour, and sexual health. In M. Marmot & R. G. Wilkinson (Eds.), Social determinants of health (2nd edition, pp. 318–340). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kairouz, S., Gliksman, L., Demers, A., & Adlaf, E. M. (2002). For all these reasons, I do . . .drink: a multilevel analysis of contextual reasons for drinking among Canadian undergraduates. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(5), 600–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaplan, G. A., Pamuk, E. R., Lynch, J. W., Cohen, R. D., & Balfour, J. L. (1996). Inequal-ity in income and mortality in the United States: Analysis of mortality and potential pathways. British Medical Journal, 312(7037): 999–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kawachi, I., & Berkman, L. F. (2000). Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In L. F. Berkman & I Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology (pp. 174–190). Oxford: Oxford Uni-versity Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B. P., & Glass, R. (1999). Social capital and self-rated health: a con-textual analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 89(8), 1187–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kawachi, I., Kim, D., Coutts, A., & Subramanian, S. V. (2004). Commentary: Reconciling the three accounts of social capital. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(4), 682–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kim, D., Subramanian, S. V., Gortmaker, S. L., & Kawachi, I. (2006). US-state- and county-level social capital in relation to obesity and physical inactivity: A multilevel, multivariable analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 1045–1059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Leyden, K. M. (2003). Social capital and the built environment: The importance of walka-ble neighborhoods. Social Science and Medicine, 93(9), 1546–1551.Google Scholar
  62. Lindström, M. (2000). Social participation, social capital, and socioeconomic differences in health related behaviors. Malmö: Lund University. (Doctoral dissertation).Google Scholar
  63. Lindström, M., Hanson, B. S., & Östergren, P. O. (2001). Socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity: the role of social participation and social capital in shap-ing health related behaviour. Social Science and Medicine, 52(3), 441–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lindström, M., Hanson, B. S., Wirfält, E., & Östergren, P. O. (2001). Socioeconomic dif-ferences in the consumption of vegetables, fruit and fruit juices: The influence of psy-chosocial factors. European Journal of Public Health, 11, 51–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lindström, M., Isacsson, S. O. (2002). Smoking cessation among daily smokers, aged 45–69 years: A longitudinal study in Malmö, Sweden. Addiction, 97, 205–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lindström, M. (2003). Social capital and the miniaturization of community among daily and intermittent smokers: a population-based study. Preventive Medicine, 36, 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindström, M., Isacsson, S. O., & Elmståhl, S. (2003). Impact of different aspects of social participation and social capital on smoking cessation among daily smokers: A longitu-dinal study. Tobacco Control, 12(3), 274–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lindström, M., Moghaddassi, M., Bolin, K., Lindgren, B., & Merlo, J. (2003). Social participation, social capital and daily tobacco smoking: A population-based multi-level analysis in Malmö, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 31(6), 444–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lindström, M., Moghaddassi, M., & Merlo, J. (2003). Social capital and leisure-time phys-ical activity: A population-based multilevel analysis of individual- and neighbourhood level data in Malmö, Sweden. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57, 23–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lindström, M. (2004). Social capital, the miniaturization of community and cannabis smoking among young adults: A population-based study. European Journal of Public Health, 14(2), 204–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lindström, M. (2005a). Socialcapital, the miniaturization of community and high alcohol consumption: A population-based study. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 40(6), 556–562.Google Scholar
  72. Lindström, M. (2005b). Socialcapital, the miniaturization of community and and con-sumption of home made and smuggled liquor during the past year: A population-based study. European Journal of Public Health, 15(6), 593–600.Google Scholar
  73. Lindström, M. (2005c). Pricerestrictions and other restrictions on alcohol availability in Denmark and Sweden: A historical perspective with implications for the current debate. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 33, 156–158.Google Scholar
  74. Lindström, M., Axèn, E., Lindström, C., Beckman, A., Moghaddassi, M., & Merlo, J. (2006). Social capital and neo-materialist contextual determinants of lack of access to a regular doctor: A multilevel analysis in southern Sweden. Health Policy, 79, 153–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Locher, J. L., Ritchie, C. S., Roth, D. L., Sawyer Baker, P., Bodner, E. V., Allman, R. M. (2005). Social isolation, support and capital and nutritional risk in an older sample: Eth-nic and gender differences. Social Science and Medicine, 60, 747–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lochner, K., Kawachi, I., & Kennedy, B. P. (1999). Social capital: a guide to its measure-ment. Health and Place, 5(4), 259–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lomas, J. (1998). Social capital and health: Implications for health policy and epidemiol-ogy. Social Science and Medicine, 47, 1181–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lundborg, P. (2005). Social capital and substance use among Swedish adolescents- an explorative study. Social Science and Medicine, 1151–1158.Google Scholar
  79. Macinko, J., & Starfield, B. (2001). The utility of social capital in research on health deter-minants. The Milbank Quarterly, 79(3), 387–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. MacIntyre, S., MacIver, S., & Sooman, A. (1993). Area, social class and health: Should we be focusing on places or people. Journal of Social Policy, 22(2), 213–234.Google Scholar
  81. Maes, L., & Lievens, J. (2003). Can the school make a difference? A multilevel analysis of adolescent risk and health behaviour. Social Science and Medicine, 56(3), 517–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Madriz, E. (1997). Nothing bad happens to good girls: fear of crime in women’s lives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  83. McIntosh, W. A., & Schifflett, P. A. (1984). Influence of social support systems on dietary intake of the elderly. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 4(1), 5–18.Google Scholar
  84. McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: a definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 6–23.Google Scholar
  85. McNeill, L. H., Kreuter, M. W., & Subramanian, S. V. (2006). Social environment and physical activity: a review of concepts and evidence. Social Science and Medicine, 63(4), 1011–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. McLeroy, K. R., Bibeau, D., Steckler, A., & Glantz, K. (1988). An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly, 15(4), 351–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Moore, L., Roberts, C., & Tudor-Smith, C. (2001). School smoking policies and smoking prevalence among adolescents: Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from Wales. Tobacco Control, 10(2), 117–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Morland, K., Wing, S., & Diez Roux, A. (2002). The contextual effect of the local food envi-ronment on resident’s diets: The Atheroschlerosis risk in communities study. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1761–1767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Muntaner, C. (2004). Commentary: Social capital, social class, and the slow progress of psychosocial epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33, 674–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Murray, C. J., & Lopez, A. (1996). Quantifying the burden of disease and injury to ten major risk factors. In C. J. Murray & A. Lopez (Eds.), The global burden of disease: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020 (pp. 295–327). Cambridge, MA: Harvard School of Public Health on behalf of the WHO.Google Scholar
  91. Navarro, V. (2004). Commentary: Is social capital the solution or the problem? Interna-tional Journal of Epidemiology, 33, 672–674.Google Scholar
  92. Navarro, v., & Shi, L. (2001). The political context of social capital inequalities and health. International Journal of Health services, 31(1), 1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Öhlander, E., Vikström, M., Lindström, M., & Sundquist, K. (2006). Neighbourhood non-employment and daily smoking: a population-based study of women and men in Sweden. European Journal of Public Health, 16(1), 78–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pearce, N., & Davey Smith, G. (2003). Is social capital the key to inequalities in health? American Journal of Public Health, 93(1), 122–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Pinilla, J., Gonzalez, B., Barber, P., & Santana, Y. (2002). Smoking in young adiescents: an approach with multilevel discrete choice models. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56(3), 227–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Plotnikoff, R. C., McCargar, L. J., Wilson, P. M., & Loucaides, C. A. (2005). Efficacy of an E-mail intervention for the promotion of physical activity and nutrition behaviour in the workplace context. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19(6), 422–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Pollack, C. E., Cubbin, C., Ahn, D., & Winkleby, M. (2005). Neighbourhood deprivation and alcohol consumption: Does the availability of alcohol play a role? International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(4), 772–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pomerleau, O. F., & Pomerleau, C. S. (1991). Research on stress and smoking, progress and problems. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 599–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work. Civic traditions in modern Italy. Prince-ton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American community. New York, London: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  101. Rabin, D. L., & Barry, O. P. (1995). Community options for elderly patients. In W. Reichel (Ed.), Care of the elderly. Clinical aspects of aging. (4th edition, pp. 521–528). Balti-more, MD: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  102. Rehm, J., Room, R., & Moneiro, M. (2004). Alcohol use. In M. Ezzati, A. D. Lopez, A. Rodgers, & C. Murray (Eds.), Comparative quantification of health risks: Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors, Vol. 1 (pp. 959–1108). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  103. Reijneveld, S. A. (1998). The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking. International Journal of Epidemiol-ogy, 27(1), 33–40.Google Scholar
  104. Resnicow, K., Futterman, R., Weston, R. E., Royce, J., Parms, C., Freeman, H. P., & Orlandi, M. A. (1996). Smoking prevalence in Harlem, NY. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 343–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rice, N., Carr-Hill, R., Dixon, P., & Sutton, M. (1998). The influence of households on drinking behavior: A multilevel analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 46(8), 971–979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Robertson, A., Brunner, E., & Sheiham, A. (2006). Food is a political issue. In M. Marmot & R. G. Wilkinson (Eds.), Social determinants of health (2nd edition, pp. 172–195). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Rogers, E. (1983). Diffusion of innovations. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  108. Rose, G. (1992). The strategy of preventive medicine. New York: Oxford university Press.Google Scholar
  109. Ross, C. E., Reynolds, J. R., & Geis, K. J. (2000). The contingent meaning of neighbour-hood stability for residents’ psychological well-being. American Sociological Review, 65, 581–597.Google Scholar
  110. Schofield, G., Croteau, K., & McLean, G. (2005). Trust levels of physical activity informa-tion sources: a population study. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 16(3), 221–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Smart, R. G., & Ogborne, A. C. (2000). Drug use and drinking among students in 36 coun-tries. Addictive Behavior, 25, 455–460.Google Scholar
  112. Sooman, A., MacIntyre, S., & Anderson, A. (1993). Scotland’s health- a more difficult challenge for some? The price and availability of healthy foods in socially contrasting localities in the west of Scotland. Health Bulletin (Edinburgh), 51, 276–284.Google Scholar
  113. Sorensen, G., Emmons, K., Hunt, M. K., & Johnston, D. (1998). Implications of the results of community intervention trials. Annual Review of Public Health, 19, 379–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Subramanian, S. V., Nandy, S., Irving, M., Gordon, D., & Smith, G. (2005). Role of socioeconomic markers and state prohibition policy in predicting alcohol consumption among men and women in India: A multilevel statistical analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83(11), 803.Google Scholar
  115. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Svenson, G. R., & Hanson, B. S. (1996). Are peer and social influences important compo-nents to include in HIV-STD prevention models? Results of a survey on young people at Lund University, Sweden. European Journal of Public Health, 6, 203–211.Google Scholar
  117. Szreter, S., & Woolcock, M. (2004). Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of Public Health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33, 650–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. The World Health Report 2002. (2002). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  119. Todd, M. (2004). Daily processes in stress and smoking: Effects of negative events, nico-tine dependence, and gender. Psychology of Addicictive Behaviors, 18(1), 31–39.Google Scholar
  120. US Department of Health and Human services. (1990). Healthy people 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  121. van Lenthe, F. J., Brug, J., & Mackenbach, J. P. (2005). Neighbourhood inequalities in physical activity: the role of neighbourhood attractiveness, proximity to local facilities and safety in the Netherlands. Social Science and Medicine, 60(4), 763–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Weitzman, E. R., & Chen, Y. Y. (2005). Risk modifying effect of social capital on meas-ures of heavy alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, harms, and secondhand effects: national survey findings. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59(4), 303–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Weitzman, E. R., & Kawachi, I. (2000). Giving means receiving: the protective effect of social capital on binge drinking on college campuses. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1936–1939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Williams, M. V., Parker, R. M., Baker, D. W., Parikh, N. S., Pitkin, K., Coates, W. C., & Nurss, J. R. (1995). Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 274, 1677–1682.Google Scholar
  125. Wilson, D. K., Kirtland, K. A., Ainsworth, B. E., & Addy, C. L. (2004). Socioeconomic status and perceptions of access and safety for physical activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 28, 20–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Woolcock, M. (1998). Social capital and economic development: toward a theoretical syn-thesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27, 151–208.Google Scholar
  127. Woolcock, M. (2001). The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes. Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 15(2), 225–249.Google Scholar
  128. World Health Organization. (2000). The first action plan for food and nutrition policy, WHO European Region 2000–2005. (http://www.euro.who.int/nutrition/FoodandNutActPlan/20010906_2). Copenhagen, WHO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Lindström
    • 1
  1. 1.Malmö University Hospital/Lund UniversityMalmöSweden

Personalised recommendations