International Programs and the Use of Modern Biotechnologies for Crop Improvement

  • Jean-Marcel Ribaut
  • Philippe Monneveux
  • Jean-Cristophe Glaszman
  • Hei Leung
  • Theo Van Hintum
  • Carmen de Vicente
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 1)


This chapter describes some of the key steps taken during the development of the international agriculture research effort over the last century and presents an overview of the various players involved. The role and niche of foundations, the private sector, and national programs are discussed in the context of accessing and using genomics resources. A description of the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP) is presented as a detailed case study of an international initiative aiming to develop and utilize genomics resources to enable plant breeders in the developing world to produce better crop varieties for resource-poor farmers. The challenges faced by the international programs, and the GCP in particular, to positively impact crop productivity in marginal environments are discussed.


Green Revolution International Program Genetic Stock Rockefeller Foundation Modern Biotechnology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Berry SS (1984) The food crisis and agrarian change in Africa: a review essay, African Studies Review 27:59–112Google Scholar
  2. Brown AHD (1989) Core collections: a practical approach to genetic resources management. Genome 31:818–824Google Scholar
  3. Byerlee D, Fischer K (2001) Accessing modern science: Policy and institutional options in developing countries. IP Strategy Today 1. Accessed December 19, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. Comai L, Young K, Till BJ, Reynolds SH, Greene EA, et al. (2004) Efficient discovery of DNA polymorphisms in natural populations by ecotilling. Plant J 37:778–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Conway G (1997) The doubly Green Revolution; Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 335 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Conway G, Toenniessen G (2003) Science for African food security. Science 299:1187–1188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Delmer DP (2005) Agriculture in the developing world: Connecting innovations in plant research to downstream applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:15739–15746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dev M (1998) Regional disparities in agricultural labour productivity and rural poverty. Indian Econ Rev 23:167–205Google Scholar
  9. FAO (2005) FAO Reform. A vision for the twenty-first century. FAO, Roma, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  10. Foley JA, Defries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan G, et al. (2005) global consequences of land use. Science 309:570–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gakou ML (1987) The crisis in African agriculture. Studies in African political economy. The United Nations University Zed Books Ltd. London and New Jersey. xii + 100 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Grimanelli D, Perotti E, Ramirez J, Leblanc O (2005) Timing of the maternal-to-zygotic transition during early seed development in maize. Plant Cell 17:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hazell PBR, Ramasamy C, Rajagopalan V, Aiyasamy PK, Bliven N (1991) Economic changes among village households. In: Hazell PBR, Ramasamy C (eds) The Green Revolution Reconsidered: The Impact of High-Yielding Rice Varieties in South India, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press pp. 29–56Google Scholar
  14. Huang J, Rozelle S, Pray C, Wang Q (2002) Plant biotechnology in China. Science 295:674–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kliebenstein DJ, West MAL, van Leeuwen H, Kim K, Doerge RW, et al. (2006) Genomic survey of gene expression diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 172:1179–1189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McCallum CM, Comai L, Greene EA, Henikoff S (2000) Targeting induced local lesions IN genomes (TILLING) for plant functional genomics. Plant Physiol 123(2):439–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O'Toole JC, Toenniessen GH, Murashige T, Harris RR, Herdt RW (2001) The Rockefeller Foundation's International genetics IV. Proc 4th Intl Rice Genetics Symp. International Rice Research Institute. pp. 39–59Google Scholar
  18. Pardey PG, Beintema NM (2001) Slow magic: Agricultural R&D a century after Mendel (technical report 36). Washington, DC: Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators/International Food Policy Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  19. Pardey P, Roseboom J, Beintema N (2003) Agricultural research in Africa: three decades of development. ISNAR Briefing PaperGoogle Scholar
  20. Perkins JH (1997) Geopolitics and the green revolution: wheat, genes and the cold war. Oxford University Press US. 352 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Raghavan C, Naredo E, Wang H, Atienza G, Liu B, et al. (2007) Rapid method for detecting SNPs on agarose gels and applications for candidate gene mapping. Mol Breed 19:87–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rockefeller Foundation (2006) Africa’s turn: a new green revolution for the 21st Century. The Rockefeller Foundation publication 12 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Sanchez PA, Swaminathan MS (2005) Cutting world hunger in half. Science 307:357–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Savidan Y, Carman JG, Dresselhaus T (2000) The flowering of apomixis: from mechanisms to genetic engineering. CIMMYT/IRD/EC. Xii, 243 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Spielman DJ, von Grebmer K (2004) Public-private partnerships in agricultural research: An analysis of challenges facing industry and the consultative group on international agricultural research. EPTD Discussion Paper No. 113. International Food Policy Research Institute, 63 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Spitz P (1987) The Green Revolution re-examined in India. In: Glaeser (ed). The Green Revolution Revisited: Critique and Alternatives. In: Allen & Unwin (ed), London, pp. 56–75Google Scholar
  27. Toenniessen GH, Herdt RW (1988) The Rockefeller Foundation's International Program on rice biotechnology. Presented at USAID-sponsored conference on Strengthening Collaboration in Biotechnology: International Agriculture and the Private Sector, 17–21 April 1988, Washington, D.C. P 291–317Google Scholar
  28. Toenniessen GH, O'Toole JC, DeVries J (2003) Advances in plant biotechnology and its adoption in developing countries. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:191–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Upadhyaya HD, Furman BJ, Dwivedi SL, Udupa SM, Gowda CLL, et al. (2006) Development of a composite collection for mining germplasm possessing allelic variation for beneficial traits in chickpea. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation 4:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Walia H, Wilson C, Zeng L, Ismail AM, Condamine P, et al. (2007) Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of salinity stressed japonica and indica rice genotypes during panicle initiation stage. Plant Mol Biol 69:609–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang Y, Xue Y, Li J (2005) Towards molecular breeding and improvement of rice in China. Trends in Plant Sc. 10:610–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wenzl P, Carling J, Kudrna D, Jaccoud D, Huttner E, et al. (2004) Diversity Array Technology (DArT) for whole-genome profiling of barley. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:9915–9920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Marcel Ribaut
    • 1
  • Philippe Monneveux
  • Jean-Cristophe Glaszman
  • Hei Leung
  • Theo Van Hintum
  • Carmen de Vicente
  1. 1.Generation Challenge Programme – Genetic Resources and Enhancement Unit International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)Carretera Méx-Veracruz, EI BatánTexcoco

Personalised recommendations