Genomics of Pineapple, Crowning The King of Tropical Fruits

  • Jose Ramon Botella
  • Mike Smith
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 1)


Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] is the third most important tropical fruit in world production after banana and citrus. Nevertheless, and despite its commercial importance, very little genomics research has been performed in this crop. Development of molecular markers has been reported recently to study genetic relationships among the different Ananas species and with other members of the Bromeliaceae family. Results from those studies suggest that the existing classification of the seven Ananas species needs to be reconsidered. A basic pineapple genetic map is available, although it needs to be developed with the addition of additional markers. Medium scale expressed sequence tag (EST) projects have been undertaken using developing fruits and nematode-infested roots as tissue sources. A bioinformatic resource providing sequence and functional information on all EST clones has been developed. Finally, pineapple microarrays containing in excess of 9,000 EST clones have been produced. Although research in pineapple genomics is taking momentum, much more is needed before the tools developed can be used for the benefit of the industry. An international collaborative effort to develop additional molecular markers and perhaps a genome sequencing initiative is needed.


Tropical Fruit Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Marker Pineapple Fruit Additional Molecular Marker Ananas Comosus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brewbaker JL, Gorrez DD (1967) Genetics of self-incompatibility in the monocot genera, Ananas (pineapple) and Gasteria. Am J Bot 54:611–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown GK, Gilmartin AJ (1986) Chromosomes of the Bromeliaceae. Selbyanna 9:85–93Google Scholar
  3. Brown GK, Palaci CA, Luther HE (1997) Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae. Selbyanna 18:85–88Google Scholar
  4. Cabral JRS, de Matos AP, d’Eeckenbrugge GC (1997) Segregation for resistance to fusariose, leaf margin type and leaf colour from the EMBRAPA Pineapple Hybridization Programme. Acta Hort 425:193–200Google Scholar
  5. Cabral JRS, d’Eeckenbrugge GC, de Matos AP (2000) Introduction of selfing in pineapple breeding. Acta Hort 529:165–168Google Scholar
  6. Carlier JD, Reis A, Duval MF, d’Eeckenbrugge GC, Leitao JM (2004) Genetic maps of RAPD, AFLP and ISSR markers in Ananas bracteatus and A. comosus using the pseudo-testcross strategy. Plant Breeding 123:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Collins JL (1951) Antiquity of the pineapple in America. Southwestern J Anthrop 7:145–155Google Scholar
  8. Collins JL (1960) The pineapple. (New York: Interscience Publishers)Google Scholar
  9. Collins JL, Kerns KR (1931) Genetic studies of the pineapple. I. A preliminary report on the chromosome number and meiosis in seven pineapple varieties (Ananas sativus Lindl) and in Bromelia pinguin L. J Hered 22:139–142Google Scholar
  10. Collins JL, Kerns KR (1938) Mutations in pineapples. A study of thirty inherited abnormalities in the Cayenne variety. J Hered 29:169–173Google Scholar
  11. d’Eeckenbrugge CG, Leal F (2003) Morphology, anatomy and taxonomy. In: Bartholomew DP, Paull RE, Rohrbach KG, (eds), The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 13–32Google Scholar
  12. d’Eeckenbrugge CG, Leal F, Duval MF (1997) Germplasm resources of pineapple. Hort Reviews 21:133–175Google Scholar
  13. Dewald MG, Moore GA, Sherman WB (1988) Identification of pineapple cultivars by isozyme genotypes. Am Soc Hort Sc 113:935–938Google Scholar
  14. Duval MF, d’Eeckenbrugge GC (1993) Genetic variability in the genus Ananas. Acta Hort 27–32Google Scholar
  15. Duval MF, Noyer JL, Perrier X, d’Eeckenbrugge GC, Hamon P (2001) Molecular diversity in pineapple assessed by RFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 102:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duval MF, Buso GSC, Ferreira FR, Noyer JL, d’Eeckenbrugge GC, et al. (2003) Relationships in Ananas and other related genera using chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. Genome 46:990–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. FAOSTAT (2005) http://apps.fao.orgGoogle Scholar
  18. Feuser S, Meler K, Daquinta M, Guerra MP, Nodari RO (2003) Genotypic fidelity of micropropagated pineapple (Ananas comosus) plantlets assessed by isozyme and RAPD markers. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 72:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kato CY, Nagai C, Moore PH, Zee F, Kim MS, et al. (2004) Intra-specific DNA polymorphism in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L) Merr) assessed by AFLP markers. Gen Res Crop Evol 51:815–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kerns KR (1932) Concerning the growth of pollen tubes in pistils of Cayenne flowers. Pineapple Quarterly 1:133–137Google Scholar
  21. Kinjo K (1993) Inheritance of leaf margin spine in pineapple. Acta Hort 334, 59–66Google Scholar
  22. Ko HL, Campbell PR, Jobin-Décor MP, Eccleston KL, Graham MW, et al. (2006) The introduction of transgenes to control blackheart in pineapple (Ananas comosus L) cv Smooth Cayenne by microprojectile bombardment. Euphytica 150:387–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leal F, Amaya L (1991) The curaga (Ananas lucidus, Bromeliaceae) crop in Venzuela. Econ Bot 45:216–217Google Scholar
  24. Leal FJ, d’Eeckenbrugge GC (1996) Pineapple. In: Janick J, Moore JN (Eds) Fruit Breeding, Vol.I. Tree and Tropical Fruits. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 565–606Google Scholar
  25. Leal FJ, Soule J (1977) Maipure, a new spineless group of pineapple cultivars. HortSci 12:301–305Google Scholar
  26. Marchant CJ (1967) Chromosome evolution in the Bromeliaceae. Kew Bull 21:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moyle R, Fairbairn DJ, Ripi J, Crowe ML, Botella JR (2005a) Developing pineapple fruit has a small transcriptome dominated by metallothionein. J Exp Bot 56:101–112Google Scholar
  28. Moyle R, Crowe ML, Ripi-Koja J, Fairbairn DJ, Botella JR (2005b) PineappleDB: An online pineapple bioinformatics resource. BMC Plant Biol 5:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Neuteboom LW, Kunimitsu WY, Webb D, Christopher DA (2002) Characterization and tissue-regulated expression of genes involved in pineapple (Ananas comosus L) root development. Plant Sci 163:1021–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Noyer JL (1991) Etude preliminaire de la diversite genetique du genre Ananas par les RFLPs. Fruits (numero especial Ananas), 372–375Google Scholar
  31. Noyer JL, Lanaud C, d’Eeckenbrugge GC, Duval MF (1995) RFLP study on rDNA variability in Ananas genus. Acta Hort 425:153–159Google Scholar
  32. Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, et al. (2003) Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: New openings to the MADS world. Plant Cell 15:1538–1551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Paz EY, Gil K, Rebolledo L, Rebolledo A, Uriza D, et al. (2005) AFLP characterization of the Mexican pineapple germplasm collection. J Am Soc Hort Sci 130:575–579Google Scholar
  34. Rohrbach KG, Leal F, d’Eeckenbrugge CG (2003) History, distribution and world production. In: Bartholomew DP, Paull RE, Rohrbach KG (eds) The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  35. Ruas CD, Ruas PM, Cabral JRS (2001) Assessment of genetic relatedness of the genera Ananas and Pseudananas confirmed by RAPD markers. Euphytica 119, 245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Samuels G (1970) Pineapple cultivars. Am Soc Hort Sci Proc:13–24Google Scholar
  37. Smith LB, Downs RJ (1979) Bromelioides (Bromeliaceae). Flora Neotropica Mono 14:1493–2142Google Scholar
  38. Smith MK, Ko HL, Sanewski GM, Botella JR (2005) Ananas comosus, Pineapple. In: RE Litz, (ed), Biotechnology of Fruit and Nut Crops. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 157–172Google Scholar
  39. Sripaoraya S, Marchant R, Power JB, Davey MR (2001a) Herbicide-tolerant transgenic pineapple (Ananas comosus) produced by microprojectile bombardment. Ann Bot 88:597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sripaoraya S, Blackhall NW, Marchant R, Power JB, Lowe KC, et al. (2001b) Relationships in pineapple by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Plant Breeding 120:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Terry RG, Brown GK, Olmstead RG (1997) Examination of subfamilial phylogeny in Bromeliaceae using comparative sequencing of the plastid locus ndhF. Am J Bot 84:664–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Trusov Y, Botella JR (2006) Silencing of the ACC synthase gene ACACS2 causes delayed flowering in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L) Merr). J Exp Bot 57: 3953–3960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vrebalov J, Ruezinsky D, Padmanabhan V, White R, Medrano D, et al. (2002) A MADS-box gene necessary for fruit ripening at the tomato ripening-inhibitor (Rin) locus. Science 296:343–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose Ramon Botella
    • 1
  • Mike Smith
  1. 1.Plant Genetic Engineering Laboratory, School of Integrative BiologyPlant Genetic Engineering Laboratory, School of Integrative BiologyAustralia

Personalised recommendations