Genomics of Papaya a Common Source of Vitamins in the Tropics

  • Ray Ming
  • Qingyi Yu
  • Andrea Blas
  • Cuixia Chen
  • Jong-Kuk Na
  • Paul H. Moore
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 1)

Papaya is amajor fruit crop of the tropics and is grown to a lesser extent in the subtropics. The genome is small (372 Mbp) and has evolutionarily primitive sex chromosomes. These characters justify papaya genomics programs. In addition to whole genome sequencing, a second major goal is to completely sequence the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) and its corresponding region of the X chromosome.Genomic resources such as high density genetic maps, a physical map, and an expressed sequence tag database have been generated to support genome sequencing and as tools for papaya improvement. The papaya genome is currently being sequenced by the Hawaii Papaya Genome Consortium. Physical mapping of the MSY is near completion. Sequencing the papaya genome and the MSY will enhance our capacity to explore the origin and evolution of dioecy in the family of Caricaceae, to expand our knowledge on genome evolution by serving as an outgroup for the intensively studied family Brassicaceae, identify candidate genes for target traits, and provide genome-wide DNA markers for papaya improvement.


Simple Sequence Repeat Marker Carica Papaya Papaya Ringspot Virus Transgenic Papaya Papaya Genome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. (2000). Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 408:796–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aradhya, MK, Manshardt RM, Zee F, Morden CW (1999) A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Carica L. (Caricaceae) based on restriction fragment length variation in a cpDNA intergenic spacer region. Genet Res Crop Evol 46:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arumuganathan K, Earle ED (1991) Nuclear DNA content of some important plant species. Plant Mol Biol Rep 93:208–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badillo VM (2000) Carica L. vs. Vasconcella St. Hil. (Caricaceae): con la rehabilitación de este último. Ernstia 10:74–79Google Scholar
  5. Bowers JE, Chapman BA, Rong J-K, Paterson AH (2003). Unravelling angiosperm chromosome evolution by phylogenetic analysis of chromosomal duplication events. Nature 422:433–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charlesworth B (1991) The evolution of sex chromosomes. Science 251:1030–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charlesworth B, Charlesworth D (1978) A model for the evolution of dioecy and gynodioecy. Am Nat 112:975–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chiang,CH, Wang JJ, Jan FJ, Yeh SD, Gonsalves D (2001). Comparative reactions of recombinant papaya ringspot viruses with chimeric coat protein (CP) genes and wild-type viruses on CT-transgenic papaya. J Gen Virology 82:2827–2836Google Scholar
  9. Chiu C-T (2000). Study on sex inheritance and horticultural characteristics of hermaphrodite papaya. Master Thesis. National Pingtung University of Science and Technology. Republic of China. 60 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Czaplewski C, Grzonka Z, Jaskolski M, Kasprzykowski F, Kozk M, et al. (1999) Binding modes of a new epoxysuccinyl-peptide inhibitory of cysteine proteases. Where and how do cysteine proteases express their selectivity? Biochem et Biophysica Acta 1431:290–305.Google Scholar
  11. Deputy JC, Ming R, Ma H, Liu Z, Fitch MMM, et al. (2002) Molecular markers for sex determination in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Theor Appl Genet 106:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Draye X, Lin Y, Qian X, Bowers JE, Burow GB, et al. (2001) Toward integration of comparative genetic, physical, diversity, and cytomolecular maps for grasses and grains, using the sorghum genome as a foundation. Plant Physiol 125:1325–1341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drew RA, Siar SV, O’Brien CM, Sajise AGC (2006) Progress in backcrossing between Carica papaya × Vasconcellea quercifolia intergeneric hybrids and C. papaya. Austr J Exp Agri 46:419–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. FAOSTAT (2006) Papayas. last updated April 2005Google Scholar
  15. Fitch MMM, Manshardt RM, Gonsalves D, Slightom JL, Sanford JC (1992) Virus resistant papaya derived from tissues bombarded with the coat protein gene of papaya ringspot virus. Biotechnol 10:1466–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gonsalves D, Gonsalves C, Ferreira S, Pitz K, Fitch M, et al. (2004). Transgenic virus resistant papaya: from hope to reality for controlling papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii. APSnet Feature, Am Phytopathol Soc July 2004Google Scholar
  17. Heilborn O (1921) Taxonomical and cytological studies on cultivated Ecuodorian species of Carica. Ark Bot 17:1–16Google Scholar
  18. Hofmeyr JDJ (1938) Genetical studies of Carica papaya L. I. The inheritance and relation of sex and certain plant characteristics. II. Sex reversal and sex forms. So Afr Dept Agri Sci Bul No. 187. 64ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Hofmeyr JDJ (1939) Sex-linked inheritance in Carica papaya L. So Afr J Sci 36:283–285Google Scholar
  20. Jobin-Décor MP, Graham GC, Henry RJ, Drew RA (1997) RAPD and isozyme analysis of genetic relationships between Carica papaya and wild relatives. Gene. Res Crop Evol 44:471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim MS, Moore PH, Zee F, Fitch MMM, Steige, DL, et al. (2002) Genetic diversity of Carica papaya as revealed by AFLP markers. Genome 45:503–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Klein PE, Klein RR, Cartinhour SW, Ulanch PE, Dong J, et al. (2000) A high-throughput AFLP-based method for constructing integrated genetic and physical maps: progress toward a sorghum genome map. Genome Res 10:789–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koch MA, Haubold B, Mitchell-Olds T (2000). Comparative evolutionary analysis of chalcone synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase loci in Arabidopsis, Arabis, and related genera (Brassicaceae). Mol Biol Evol 17:1483–1498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar LSS, Abraham A, Srinivasan VK (1945) The cytology of Carica papaya Linn. Indian J Agr Sci 15:242–253Google Scholar
  25. Lai CW, Yu Q, Hou S, Skelton RL, Jones MR, et al. (2006) Analysis of papaya BAC end sequences reveals first insights into the organization of a fruit tree genome. Mol Genet Genomics 276:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lindsay RH (1930) The chromosomes of some dioecious angiosperms. Am J Bot 17:152–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu A, Moore PH, Ma H, Ackerman CM, Makandar R, et al. (2004). A primitive Y chromosome in papaya marks incipient sex chromosome evolution. Nature 427:348–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luo MC, Thomas C, You FM, Hsiao J, Ouyang S, et al. (2003). High-throughput fingerprinting of bacterial artificial chromosomes using the SNaPshot labeling kit and sizing of restriction fragments by capillary electrophoresis. Genomics 82:378–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ma H, Moore PH, Liu Z, Kim MS, Yu Q, et al. (2004) High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya. Genetics 166:419–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Magdalita PM, Villegas VN, Pimentel RB, Bayot RG (1988) Reaction of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and related Carica species to ringspot virus. Philippine J Crop Sci 13:129–132Google Scholar
  31. Magdalita PM, Persley DM, Godwin ID Drew RA, Adkins SW (1997) Screening Carica papaya x C. Cauliflora hybrids for resistance to papaya ringspot virus-type P. Plant Pathol 46:837–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manshardt RM, Drew RA (1998) Biotechnology of papaya. Acta Hort 461:65–73Google Scholar
  33. Manshardt RM, Wenslaff TF (1989) Inter-specific hybridization of papaya with other species. J Am Soc Hort Sci 114:689–694Google Scholar
  34. Martin G, Brommonschenkel SH, Chunwongse J, Frary A, Ganal M, et al. (1993) Map-based cloning of a protein kinase gene conferring disease resistance in tomato. Science 262:1432–1436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McCafferty HRK, Moore PH, Zhu YJ (2006) Improved Carica papaya tolerance to carmine spider mite by the expression of Manduca sexta chitinase transgene. Transgenic Res 15:337–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meurman O (1925) The chromosome behavior of some dioecious plants and their relatives with special reference to the sex chromosomes. Soc Sci Fennica comm Biol 2:105pGoogle Scholar
  37. Ming R, Moore PH, Zee F, Abbey CA, Ma H, et al. (2001). Construction and characterization of a papaya BAC library as a foundation for molecular dissection of a tree-fruit genome. Theor Appl Genet 102:892–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ming R, Van Droogenbroeck B, Moore PH, Zee FT, Kynd, T, et al. (2005) Molecular diversity of Carica papaya and related species. In: Sharma AK, Sharma A (eds) Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1B: Phanerograms. pp. 229–254. Science Publishers, Enfield, New Hampshire, USAGoogle Scholar
  39. Ming R, Yu Q, Moore PH (2007) Sex determination in papaya. Semin Cell Dev Biol (in press)Google Scholar
  40. Nishijima W (1994) Papaya. In: Ploetz RC, Zentmyer GA, Nishijima WT, Rohrbach, KG, Ohr HD (eds) Compendium of Tropical Fruit Disease. pp. 54–70. American Phytopath Soc Press, St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  41. Parasnis AS, Gupta VS, Tamhankar SA, Ranjekar PK (2000) A highly reliable sex diagnostic PCR assay for mass screening of papaya seedlings. Mol Breed 6:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paterson AH, Bowers JE, Burow MD, Draye X, Elsik CG, et al. (2000) Comparative genomics of plant chromosomes. Plant Cell 12:1523–1539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Persley DM, Ploetz RC (2003) Diseases of papaya. In: Ploetz RC (ed) Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops. pp. 373–412. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UKGoogle Scholar
  44. Renner SS, Ricklefs RE (1995) Dioecy and its correlates in the flowering plants. Am J Bot 82:596–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sondur SN, Manshardt RM, Stiles JI (1996) A genetic linkage map of papaya based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Theor Appl Genet 93:547–553Google Scholar
  46. Storey WB (1938a) The primary flower types of papaya and the fruit types that developed from them. Proc Am Soc Hort Sci 35:80–82Google Scholar
  47. Storey WB (1938b) Segregations of sex types in Solo papaya and their application to the selections of seed. Proc Am Soc Hort Sci 35:83–85Google Scholar
  48. Storey WB (1941) The botany and sex relations of the papaya. Hawaii Agr Exp Sta Bul 87:5–22Google Scholar
  49. Storey WB (1953) Genetics of papaya. J Heredity 44:70–78Google Scholar
  50. Storey WB (1969) Papaya. In: Ferwerda FP, Wit F (eds) Outlines of perennial crop breeding in the tropics. H Veenman & Zonen N.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 21–24Google Scholar
  51. Storey WB (1976) Papaya. In: Simmonds NW (ed) The evolution of crop plants.. pp. 21–24. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Suguira T (1927) Some observations on the meiosis of the pollen mother cells of Carica papaya, Myrica rubra, Acuba japonica, and Beta vulgaris. Bot Mag 41:219–224Google Scholar
  53. Tanksley SD, Ganal MW, Martin GB (1995) Chromosome landing: a paradigm for map-based gene cloning in plants with large genomes. Trends Genet 11:63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Urasaki N, Tokumoto M, Tarora K, Ban Y, Rayano T, et al. (2002) A male and hermaphrodite specific RAPD marker for papaya (Carica papaya L). Theor Appl Genet 104:281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. USDA (2001) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Papayas, raw: Measure 3 (whole papaya, edible portion). Scholar
  56. Van Droogenbroeck B, Breyne P, Goetghebeur P, Romeijn-Peeters E, Kyndt T, et al. (2002) AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador. Theor Appl Genet 105:289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Watson B (1997) Agronomy/Agroclimatology notes for the production of papaya. Min Agric, Forests Fisheries Meterol, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  58. Yampolsky C, Yampolsky H (1922) Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibl Genet 3:1–62Google Scholar
  59. Yu Q, Hou S, Feltus FA, Jones MR, Murray JE, et al. (2007a) Recent origin of papaya sex chromosomes.Submitted Google Scholar
  60. Yu Q, Hou S, Hobza R, Feltus FA, Wang X, et al. (2007b) Chromosomal Location and Gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya y chromosome. Mol. Genet. Genomics In press Google Scholar
  61. Zhu YJ, Agbayani R, Jackson MC, Tang CS, Moore PH (2004) Expression of the grapevine stilbene synthase gene VST1 in papaya provides increased resistance against diseases caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Planta 220:241–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ray Ming
    • 1
  • Qingyi Yu
  • Andrea Blas
  • Cuixia Chen
  • Jong-Kuk Na
  • Paul H. Moore
  1. 1.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations