Apricot Breeding

  • Hannél Ham


Apricots are most popular temperate fruit trees (Faust et al. 1998; Layne et al. 1996), bearing delicious and multipurpose fruits. The fruit can be dried, canned, juiced, preserved (by salting or smoke), made into jam, and also used medicinally. Additionally, the seed of some cultivars are edible, tasting like almonds, while the tree can be used as an ornamental plant (Faust et al. 1998). Most apricot cultivars belong to the species Prunus armeniaca, which is endemic to China (Layne et al. 1996).

Mediterranean countries account for 95% of the total fresh apricot market, and the fruits are mainly imported and consumed by the European community (Mahanoglu et al. 1995; Faust et al. 1998; Ham and Smith 2006). Although apricots are geographically widespread, they have not become economically viable except in areas with very specific climatic conditions. Apricots grow best in mountainous regions with a hot, dry summer and uniform, cold winter (Layne et al. 1996; Ham and Smith 2001...


Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Marker Cold Hardiness Single Sequence Repeat Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Agar, T. and Polat, A. (1995) Effect of different packing material on the storage quality of some apricot varieties. Acta Horticulturae 384, 625–631.Google Scholar
  2. Alburquerque, N., Burgos, L. and Egea, J. (2006) Variability in cultivar characteristics as factors influencing productivity in apricot. Acta Horticulturae 701, 267–269.Google Scholar
  3. Andrea, D. (1992) Genetic work a key to horticulture's future. The Orchardist, July, 30–33.Google Scholar
  4. Aranzana, M.J., Garcia-Mas, J., Carbo, J. and Arus, P. (2002) Development and variability analysis of microsattelite markers in peach. Plant Breeding 121, 87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arus, P. (2006) Molecular markers for variability assessment and map comparison in Prunus. Acta Horticulturae 701, 173–180.Google Scholar
  6. Audergon, J.M. (1995) Variety and breeding. Acta Horticulturae 384, 35–45.Google Scholar
  7. Audergon, J.M., Morvan, G., Dicenta, F., Chastelliere, G. and Karayiannis, I. (1995) A method to determine the susceptibility of apricot cultivars to plum pox virus. Acta Horticulturae 384, 575–579.Google Scholar
  8. Ayanoglu, H. and Kaska, N. (1995) Preliminary results of local apricot adaptation studies in the mediterranean region of Turkey. Acta Horticulturae 384, 117–121.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, C.H. and Hough, L.F. (1975) Apricots. In: J. Janick and J.N. Moore (eds.), Advances in Fruit Breeding. Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana, 367–383.Google Scholar
  10. Bartolini, S., Vitagliano, C., Cinelli, F. and Scqlabrelli, G. (1997) Effect of hydrogen cyanamide on apricot bud break and catalase activity. Acta Horticulturae 441, 159–166.Google Scholar
  11. Bassi, D. (1997) Apricot culture: Present and Future. XI International Symposium on Apricot Culture. Veria, Greece, 25–30 May 1997, 17.Google Scholar
  12. Bassi, D. (2006) Apricot breeding: update and perspectives. Acta Horticulturae 701, 279–294.Google Scholar
  13. Beckman, T.G. (2003) Rootstock breeding for stone fruit. Acta Horticulturae 22, 531–551.Google Scholar
  14. Burgos, L., Ledbetter, C.A., Perez-Tornero, 0., Ortin-Parraga, F. and Egea, J. (1997) Inheritance of sexual incompatibility in apricot. Plant Breeding 116, 383–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carter, G.E., Brock, M.M. (1980) Identification of peach cultivars through protein analysis. Hort Science 15(3), 292–293.Google Scholar
  16. De Klerk, J.A.T. and Von Mollendorff, L.J. (1994) Effect of thinning, fruit size and cold-storage period on the development of gel breakdown in apricots. Deciduous Fruit Grower 44(2), 63–68.Google Scholar
  17. Desphande, P.B. and Salunkhe, D.K. (1964) Effects of maturity and storage on certain biochemical changes in apricots and peaches. Food Technology 18, 85–132.Google Scholar
  18. Dirlewanger, E., Cosson, P., Tavaud, M., Aranzana, M.J., Poizat, C., Zanetto, A., Arus, P. and Laiget, F. (2002) Development of microsatellite markers in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 105, 127–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dirlewanger, E., Pronier, V., Parvery, C., Rothan, C., Guye, A. and Monet, R. (1998) Genetic linkage map of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] using morphological and molecular markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 97, 888–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dosba, F. (2003) Progress and prospects in stone fruit breeding. Acta Horticulturae 622, 35–43.Google Scholar
  21. Egea, J. and Burgos, L. (1999) Apricot breeding at the C.S.I.C. in Murcia, Spain. Acta Horticulturae 484, 19–181.Google Scholar
  22. Egea, J.G., Egea, J.E. and Berenguer, T. (1995) Productive behaviour of apricot varieties in a warm winter area. Acta Horticulturae 384, 129–133.Google Scholar
  23. Ercisli, S. and Guleryliz, M. (1995) The relationship between stratification periods and some characteristic of rootstock in apricot cultivars. Acta Horticulturae 384, 477–482.Google Scholar
  24. Faust, M., Surànyi, D. and Nyujto, F. (1998) Origin and dissemination of apricot. In: J. Janick (ed.), Horticultural Reviews, Vol. 22. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 225–266.Google Scholar
  25. Ginsburg, I. and Combrink, J.C. (1972) Cold-storage of apricots. Dried Fruit 4, 19–23.Google Scholar
  26. Gulcan, R. (1997) The importance of germplasm evaluation on fruit trees indigenous in Near East. Acta Horticulturae 441, 129–135.Google Scholar
  27. Gulcan, Y., Dumanoglu, H. and Kunter, B. (1995) Fruit cracking in some Turkish apricot cultivars. Acta Horticulturae 384, 277–282.Google Scholar
  28. Hagen, L.S., Khadari, B., Lambert, P. and Audergon, J.-M. (2002) Genetic diversity in apricot revealed by AFLP markers: species and cultivar comparisons. [Online] Available at link.springernycom/link/service/journals/00122/contents/02/00910/s00122-0910-8ch002.html. Accessed: April 2002.
  29. Ham, H. and Smith, C. (2001) Apricot breeding in South Africa – finding improved cultivars. Deciduous Fruit Grower May-June, 51(3), 19–21.Google Scholar
  30. Ham, H. and Smith, C. (2006) Apricot breeding in South Africa – changing of climates. Acta Horticulturae 701, 389–393.Google Scholar
  31. Hurtado, M.A., Llacer, G., Badenes, M.L. and Abbott, A.G. (2006) Genetic linkage maps of two apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) Based on RAPD and AFLP markers. Acta Hortticulture 701, 301–306.Google Scholar
  32. Huysamer, M. (1997) Integrating cultivar, rootstock and environment in the export-driven South African deciduous fruit industry. Acta Horticulturae 451, 755–761.Google Scholar
  33. Jooste, M.M. and Taylor, M.A. (1999) Effect of harvest maturity and cold storage period on the overall quality of Bebeco apricots, with special reference to gel breakdown and variates used to accurately establish harvest maturity. Deciduous Fruit Grower September, 49(Deel 8), s1–s10.Google Scholar
  34. Karayiannis, I. (1995) Reaction of apricot cultivars to plum pox virus infection. Acta Horticulturae 384, 571–574.Google Scholar
  35. Kaska, N. (1997) Temperate zone fruit and its importance in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Acta Horticulturae 441, 75–80.Google Scholar
  36. Kaska, N., Yildiz, A., Ayanoglu, H., Saglamer, M. and Giingor, M.K. (1995) Apricot adaptation studies in the mediterranean coastal region in Turkey. Acta Horticulturae 384, 67–71.Google Scholar
  37. Küden, A.B. and Son, L. (1997) Dormancy breaking experiments on apricots. Acta Horticulturae 441, 153–157.Google Scholar
  38. Lambert, C.A. (1998) Comparison of PCR-based profiling techniques for the identification of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars. M.Sc. thesis, University of Stellenbosch, 152 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Layne, R.E.C., Bailey, C.H. and Hough, L.F. (1996) Apricots. In: J. Janick and J.N. Moore (eds.), Fruit Breeding: Tree and Tropical Fruits, Vol. I. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, pp. 79–111.Google Scholar
  40. Lichou, J. (1999) Apricot: shelf-life and fruit quality. Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg 49, 204–205.Google Scholar
  41. Mahanoglu, G., Eti, S. and Paydas, S. (1995) Effects of artificial pollination on the fruit set level and fruit quality in some early ripening apricot cultivars. Acta Horticulturae 384, 397–400.Google Scholar
  42. Marks' Fruit Crops (2003) Contribution to diet. [Online] Available at Accessed: April 2003.
  43. McLaren, G.F., Fraser, J.A. and Burmeister, D.M. (1997) Storage of apricots in modified atmospheres. The Orchardist, December, 31–33.Google Scholar
  44. Monastra, F. and De Salvador, F.R. (1995) Apricot: Present and future. Acta Horticulturae 384, 401–414.Google Scholar
  45. Myrta, A., Di Terlizzi, B., Pallas, V. and Savino, V. (2006) Viruses and viroids of apricot in the mediterranean: incidence and biodiversity. Acta Horticulturae 701, 409–417.Google Scholar
  46. OABS (2005) Key Deciduous Fruit Statistics (2004) Deciduous Fruit Producers Trust Pamphlet, South Africa.Google Scholar
  47. Ricciardi, L., Giorgio, V., de Giovanni, C., Lotti, C., Gallotta, A. and Fanizza, G. (2002) The genetic diversity of Apulian apricot genotypes (Prunus armenica L.) assessed using AFLP markers. Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters, 7, 431–436.Google Scholar
  48. Sosinski, B., Gannavaraqu, M., Hager, L.D., Beck, L.E., King, G.J., Ryder, C.D., Rajapakse, S., Baird, W.V., Ballard, R.E. and Abbott, A.G. (2000) Characterization of microsateliite markers in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 101, 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Southwick, S.M. and Weis, K.G. (April–June, 1998) Selecting and propagating rootstocks to produce apricots. Hort Technology 8(2), 164–170.Google Scholar
  50. Struss, D., Aman, M., Ahmad, R. and Southwick, S.M. (2006) Identifying cultivars and genetic diversity of apricot by molecular markers. Acta Horticulturae 701, 253–256.Google Scholar
  51. Taylor, M.A. and De Kock, V.A. (1999) Effect of harvest maturity and storage regimes on the storage quality of Peeka apricots. Deciduous Fruit Grower 48(8), S1–S10.Google Scholar
  52. Testolin, R. (2003) Marker-assisted selection in stone fruit. Acta Horticulturae 622, 163–176.Google Scholar
  53. Truter, A.B., Combrink, J.C., and Von Mollendorff, L.J. (1994) Controlled-atmosphere storage of apricots and nectarines. Deciduous Fruit Grower 44(11), 421–427.Google Scholar
  54. Tzoneva, E. and Tsonev, R. (2000) Breeding for very early and very late ripening apricots. Acta Horticulturae 538, 423–426.Google Scholar
  55. Vachun, Z. (1995) Rootstocks for apricot – the current situation and main problems. Acta Horticulturae 384, 459–465.Google Scholar
  56. Van Rhyn, J.A.G. and Redelinghuys, H.E. (1988) The effect of picking maturity and cold storage on the quality of canned Bulida and Palsteyn apricots. Deciduous Fruit Grower 38(6), 189–191.Google Scholar
  57. Wang, Y., Georgi, L.L., Zhebentyayeva, T.N., Reighard, G.L., Scorza, R. and Abbott, A.G. (2002) High – throughput targeted SSR marker development in peach (Prunus persica). Genome 45, 319–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Xiloyannis, C., Dichio, B. and Celano, G. (2006) Orchard management to preserve soil fertility and improve the efficiency of water and mineral resources. Acta Horticulturae 701, 611–615.Google Scholar
  59. Yildiz, A.A., Yildiz, A., Kaska, N. and Calgar, S. (1997) Developing new table apricot cultivars. Acta Horticulturae 441, 419–422.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026South Africa

Personalised recommendations