Breeding Apple (Malus x Domestica Borkh)

  • S. Pereira-Lorenzo
  • A.M. Ramos-Cabrer
  • M. Fischer


The apple tree is a hybrid originating from a combination of wild species (Malus sieversii is supposed to be the main contributor). Growers at first selected the best specimens by seedlings, but when grafting was discovered as a mean of vegetative propagation, improvement in fruit quality became faster. Apple is cultivated in most of the temperate regions due to the fruit’s quality, its easiness to propagate, and its natural aptitude to bear. Apples are considered a healthy fruit, as the saying goes ‘an apple a day keeps the doctor away’. An apple tree can reach up to 10 m height above its own roots, having a globose canopy and the longevity between 60 and 100 years. Depending on the rootstock and the age of the tree, the roots can occupy between 2 and 104 m2, although most frequently they range between 10 and 30 m2 (Atkinson 1980).

Reproductive Biology

The apple tree is a monoecious species with hermaphroditic flowers. Three to six flowers in cymes (the first flower is...


Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Apple Juice Apple Tree Powdery Mildew Resistance Apple Cultivar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to thank USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) for the pictures the author made in the apple collection at PGRU.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Pereira-Lorenzo
    • 1
  • A.M. Ramos-Cabrer
  • M. Fischer
  1. 1.Escola Politécnica Superior, Departamento Producción VegetalUniversidad de Santiago de CompostelaCampus de Lugo

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