Almond (Prunus dulcis) Breeding

  • Thomas M. Gradziel


An adaptation to harsh climates combined with an ability to develop a deep and extensive root system has allowed cultivated and wild almond to exploit a wide variety of ecological niches in its ancestral range in central Asia extending from the Takla Makan desert in western China to the Mediterranean (Kester et al. 1991; Ladizinsky 1999). Almond is also well adapted to mild winter and dry, hot summer conditions due to its low chilling requirement for early bloom, rapid early shoot growth, and high tolerance to summer heat and drought. It is the earliest temperate tree crop to bloom, which limits production to areas relatively free from spring frosts. Because almond is self-sterile, it requires cross-pollination that further acts to promote genetic variability and, therefore, adaptability to new environments.

Commercial production is often limited by the need for cross-pollination in orchard systems, particularly in areas where spring storms can reduce both flowering...


Crown Gall Almond Cultivar Bitter Almond Wild Almond Almond Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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