Advertisement

Genetic Improvement in Cocoa

  • Wilson Reis Monteiro
  • Uilson Vanderlei Lopes
  • Didier Clement

Keywords

Rooted Cutting Cocoa Producer Cocoa Tree Phytophthora Palmivora Cocoa Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aime, M.C. and Phillips-Mora, W. (2005) The causal agents of witches’ broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae. Mycologia 95, 1012–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida, C.M.V.C. Barriga, J.P. Machado, P.F.R. and Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolução do Programa de Conservação dos Recursos Genéticos de Cacau na Amazônia Brasileira. Departamento Especial da Amazônia. Boletim Técnico 5, 108–109.Google Scholar
  3. Alverson, W.S. Whitlock, B.A. Nyffeler, R. Bayer, C. and Baum, D.A. (1999) Phylogeny of the core Malvales: Evidence from ndhF sequence data. American Journal of Botany 86, 1474–1486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aneja, M. Gianfagna, T. Ng, E. and Badilla, I. (1994) Carbon dioxide treatment partially overcomes self-incompatibility in a cocoa genotype. In: 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yamoussoukro, 1993. pp. 495–500.Google Scholar
  5. APG II. (2003) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. The Linnean Society of London. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141, 399–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arosemena, A.G. (1991) El fruto de los dioses. Origen del cacao en el Ecuador. Guayaquil. Edit Graba. 1, 24–27.Google Scholar
  7. Bartley, B.G.D. (1953) Outlines of the cacao breeding program at ICTA. A Report on Cocoa Research 1945–1951. St Augustine, Trinidad, ICTA, 1953. pp. 24–25.Google Scholar
  8. Bartley, B.G.D. (2005) The genetic diversity of cacao and its utilization. CABI Publishing. Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Bekele, F.L The history of cocoa production in Trinidad and Tobago. In: http://www.uwi.tt/cru/fb-hocp-ncnp.pdf, accessed in October 24, 2005.
  10. Bergman, J. (1969) The distribution of cacao cultivation in pre-colombian America. Annals of the Assoc. of America Geographers. 59, 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burle, L. (1952) La production du cacao en Afrique occidentale française. Centre de Recherches Agronomiques, Bingerville, Côte d’Ivoire.Google Scholar
  12. Carletto, G.A. Garcia, J.R. and Magalhães, W.S. (1977) Evaluacion de hibridos y lineas endocriadas de cacao en Bahia; In: Fifth International Cocoa Research Conference. Ibadan – Nigéria. pp 106–109.Google Scholar
  13. Chalmers, W.S. (1973) Cacao Germplasm Collecting in the Oriente Region of Ecuador, in Annual Reports on cocoa Research, Trinidad. Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, University of the West Indies, Trinidad. pp. 32–39.Google Scholar
  14. Cheesman, E.E. (1944) Notes on the nomenclature, classification and possible relationship of cocoa populations. Tropical Agriculture 21, 144–159.Google Scholar
  15. Chong, C.F., Shaharuddin, S. and Tan, S.T. (1989) Progress in clonal development in cocoa. MCB/MCGC Workshop on Cocoa Agricultural Research, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  16. Christopher, Y. Mooleedhar, V. Bekele, F. and Hosein, F. (1999) Verification of accession in the ICG,T using botanical descriptors and RAPD analysis. In: Annual report 1998. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: Cocoa Research Unit, The University of the West Indies, pp 15–18.Google Scholar
  17. Cilas, D. and Desprèaux, D. (2004) Improvement of cocoa tree resistance to Phytophthora diseases. Montpellier, 1, 7–171.Google Scholar
  18. Cilas, C.P. Clément, D. and Baradat, P. (1999a) Sélection multi-caractères dans un plan factoriel de croisements en Côte d’Ivoire. Définition d’un index de sélection. In: 12th International Conference Cocoa Research, October 20–25, 1996, Salvador Bahia, Brazil, pp. 411–416.Google Scholar
  19. Cilas, C. Berry, D. Paulin, D. N’Goran, J.A.K. and Djiekpor, E.K. (1999b) La résistance la pourriture brune des cabosses au Cameroun, en Côte d’Ivoire et au Togo. Bilan d’évaluation au champ. In: 12th International Conference Cocoa Research, October 20–25, 1996, Salvador Bahia, Brazil, pp. 411–416.Google Scholar
  20. Clement, D. Risterucci, A.M. Motamayor, J.C. N’goran, J. and Lanaud, C. (2003a) Mapping QTL for yield components, vigor, and resistance to Phytophthora palmivora in Theobroma cacao L. Genome 46, 204–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clement, D. Risterucci, A.M. Motamayor, J.C. N’goran, J. and Lanaud, C. (2003b) Mapping quantitative trait loci for bean traits and ovule number in Theobroma cacao. Genome, 46, 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clément, D. N’Goran, J.A.K. Paulin, D. Lachenaud, P. Sounigo, O. and Eskes, A.B. (1999) Amélioration génétique du cacaoyer en Côte d’Ivoire: nouvelle sortie variétale. In: 12th International Cocoa Resarch Conference, November 17–23, 1996, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Cocoa Producers’ Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria, pp. 337–344.Google Scholar
  23. Cope, F.W. (1958) Incompatibility in Theobroma cacao. Nature 181, 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cope, F.W. (1959) Nuclear fusion and non-fusion in Theobroma cacao L. Nature 183, 1540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cope, F.W. (1962) The mechanism of pollen incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L.. Heredity 17, 157–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crouzillat, D. Menard, B. Mora, A. Phillips, W. and Petiard, V. (2000a) Quantitative trait analysis in Theobroma cacao using molecular markers – Yield QTL detection and stability over 15 years. Euphytica 114, 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crouzillat, D., Phillips, W., Fritz, P. and Petiard, V. (2000b) Quantitative trait analysis in Theobroma cacao using molecular markers – Inheritance of polygenic resistance to Phytophthora palmivora in two related cocoa populations. Euphytica 114, 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cuatrecasas, J. (1964) Cacao and its allies: a taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma. Contribution from the United State Natural Herbarium 35, 379–614.Google Scholar
  29. De Nettancourt, D. (1977) Incompatibility in angiosperms. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  30. De Nettancourt, D. (2000) Incompatibility and incongruity in wild and cultivated plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  31. Efron, Y., Epaina, P. and Taisa, S. (2003a) Analysis of the factors affecting yield and yield variability in the SG2 cocoa hybrid variety in Papua New Guinea. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding for Improved Production Systems. 19–21 October, 2003, Accra, Ghana. Eds. F. Bekele, M.J. End and A.B. Eskes. INGENIC and COCOBOD. pp. 50–61.Google Scholar
  32. Efron, Y., Epaina, P. and Marfu, J. (2003b) Correlation between parental genotypes and the yields of their hybrids and the productivity of clones derived from these hybrids. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding for Improved Production Systems. 19–21 October, 2003, Accra, Ghana. Eds. F. Bekele, M.J. End and A.B. Eskes. INGENIC and COCOBOD. pp. 79–91.Google Scholar
  33. Efron, Y., Epaina, P. and Marfu, J., (2003c) Breeding strategies to improve cocoa production in Papua New Guinea. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding for Improved Production Systems. 19–21 October, 2003, Accra, Ghana. Eds. F. Bekele, M.J. End and A.B. Eskes. INGENIC and COCOBOD. pp. 12–32.Google Scholar
  34. Efron, Y., Tade, E. and Epaina, P. (2003d) A cocoa growth mutant with a dwarfing effect as rootstock. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding for Improved Production Systems. 19–21 October, 2003, Accra, Ghana. Eds. F. Bekele, M.J. End and A.B. Eskes. INGENIC and COCOBOD. pp. 118–131.Google Scholar
  35. End, M.J., Wadsworth, R.M. and Hadley, P. (1992) International cocoa germplasm database. The Biscuit, Cake, Chocolate, and Confectionary Alliance, London, England.Google Scholar
  36. Engelbrecht, C.J.B. and Harrington, T.C. (2005) Intersterility, morphology and taxonomy of Ceratocystis fimbriata on sweetpotato, cacao and sycamore. Mycologia, 97(5): 1067–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Enriquez, G.A., Barrera, V.H. and Silva, E. (1994) Cacao ‘Nacional’ from Ecuador a Criollo Type Cação. In: 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yamoussoukro, 1993. pp 989–990.Google Scholar
  38. Eskes, A.B. Paulin, D. Clément, D. N’Goran, J.A.K. Sounigo, O. Lachenaud, P. Cilas, C. Berry, D. Yagmpam, A. (1995) Méthodes de sélection et connaissances acquises en génétique par les programs d’amélioration du cacaoyer en Côte d’Ivoire et au Cameroun. In: International workshop on cocoa breeding strategies. October 18–19, 1994, kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdon, pp. 41–57.Google Scholar
  39. Evans, H. (1951). Investigations on the propagation of cacao. Tropical Agriculture. 28, 147–203.Google Scholar
  40. Faleiro, A.S.G. Faleiro, F.G. Lopes, U.V. Melo, G.R.P. Monteiro, W.R. Yamada, M.M. Bahia, R.C.S. and Corrêa, R.X. (2004a) Variability in cacao selected by producers for resistance to witches’ broom based on microsatellite markers. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 4, 290–297.Google Scholar
  41. Faleiro, F.G. Yamada, M.M. Lopes, U.V. Faleiro, A.S.G. Bahia, R.C.S. Gomes, L.M.C. Santos, R.C. and Santos, R.F. (2002) Genetic similarity of Theobroma cacao L accessions maintained in duplicate at the Cacao Research Center germplasm collection, based on RAPD markers. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 2, 439–444.Google Scholar
  42. Faleiro, F.G. Lopes, U.V. Yamada, M.M. Melo, G.R.P. Monteiro, W.R. Pires, J.L. Rocha, J.B. Bahia, R.C.S. Gomes, L.M.C. Araújo, I.S. and Faleiro, A.S.G. (2004b) Genetic diversity of cacao accessions selected for resistance to witches’ broom based on RAPD markers. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 4, 12–17.Google Scholar
  43. Faleiro, F.G. Pires, J.P Monteiro, W.R. Lopes, U.V. Yamada, M.M. Piedra, A.G. Moura, A.D. Gardini, E.A. Marques, J.R.B. Gramacho, K.P. Faleiro, A.S.G. and Santos, M.C.M. (2004c) Variability in cacao accessions from the Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian Amazons based on molecular markers. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 4, 227–233.Google Scholar
  44. Falque, M. (1994) Fécondation et développement des fruits et des graines chez le cacaoyer Theobroma cacao L. Thèse de doctorat, INP, Toulouse, France, 177 p.Google Scholar
  45. Figueira, A. Janick, J.J. Levy, M. and Goldsbrough, P. (1994) Reexamining the classification of Theobroma cacao L. using molecular markes. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119, 1073–1082.Google Scholar
  46. Flament, M.H. Kébé, I. Clément, D. Pierretti, I. Risterucci, A.M. N’Goran, J.A.K. Cilas, C. Despréaux, D. Lanaud, C. (2001) Genetic mapping of resistance factors to Phytophthora palmivora in cocoa. Génome 44, 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Flower, R.L. and López, G.H. (1949) The cacao industry of Ecuador. In: Foreign Agriculture Report. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations U.S. Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C. (34), 1–48.Google Scholar
  48. Freeman, W.E. (1969) Some aspects of the cocoa breeding program. Proceedings of the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago, December, 1968. pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  49. Freeman, W.E. (1975) A possible new approach to cocoa growing. A publication of the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands & Fisheries, Extension Division. Trinidad and Tobago.Google Scholar
  50. Knight, R. and Rogers, H.H. (1953) Sterility in Theobroma cacao L. Nature 172, 164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Knight, R. and Rogers, H.H. (1955) Incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L. Heredity 9, 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lachenaud, P. (2000) First cycle of the recurrent selection of cocoa-trees in Côted’Ivoire and the choice of representative seedlings of the second cycle. In: 13th International Cocoa Research Conference, October 9–14, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  53. Lamin, K. and Sa’edi, M. (1994) Cocoa breeding strategies. In: Proc. Of the International Workshop on Breeding Strategies, Kuala Lumpur, Oct. 1994. pp. 59–65.Google Scholar
  54. Lanaud, C. (1986) Genetic studies of Theobroma cacao L. with the help of enzymatic markers. I. Genetic control and linkage of nine enzymatic markers. Café Cacao The 30, 268–270.Google Scholar
  55. Lanaud, C. Risterucci, A.M. N’Goran, A.K.J. Clement, D. Flament, M.H. Laurent, V. and Falque, M. (1995). A genetic linkage map of Theobroma cacao L.. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 91, 987–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lanaud, C, Kébé I, Risterucci, A.M. Clément, D. N’Goran, J.KA, Grivet, L. Tahi, M. Cilas, C. Pieretti, I. Eskes, A.B. Despréaux, D. (1999) Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to Phytophthora palmivora in T. cacao L. In: 12th International Cocoa Research Conference, November 17–23, 1996, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil pp. 99–105.Google Scholar
  57. Marita, J.M. (1998) Characterization of Theobroma cacao using RAPD-marker based estimates of genetic distance and recommendations for a core collection to maximize genetic diversity. MSc Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. M.Google Scholar
  58. Mota, J.W.S. (2003) Análise da diversidade genética de germoplasma de Theobroma cacao L. da Amazônia brasileira por microssatélites. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brasil. 97p.Google Scholar
  59. Motamayor, J.C. Risterucci, A.M. Laurent, V. Moreno, A. and Lanaud, C. (1997) The genetic diversity of criollo cacao and its consequence in quality breeding. In: Congresso Venezolano del Cacao y su industria, 1997, November 17–21, Maracay, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  60. Motilal, L.A. Butler, D.R. Mooleedhar, V. (2002) Verification in global cacao germplasm collections. Ingenic Newsletter 7, 4–8.Google Scholar
  61. Nyassé S. Cilas, C. Hérail C. Blaha G (1995) Leaf inoculation as an early screening test for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) resistance to Phytophthora black pod disease. Crop Protection 14, 657–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ooi, L.H. Ang, T.L. and Palaniappan, S. (1989) Progress in seedling in cocoa improvement in Malaysia. MCB/MCGC. In: Workshop on Cocoa Agricultural Research, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  63. Paulin, D. and Eskes, A.B. (1995) Le cacaoyer stratégies de selection. Plantations, Recherche. Developpement. Novembre – Décembre, 1995. 2, 5–8.Google Scholar
  64. Paulin, D. Mossu G, Lachenaud, P. Eskes, A.B. (1994) Analyse génétique d’un schéma de croisement factoriel appliqué à des hybrides de cacaoyer étudiés dans 4 localités de Côte d’Ivoire. In: International Cocoa Conference Challenges in the 90’s, September 25–28, 1991, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Malaysian Cocoa Board, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 73–83.Google Scholar
  65. Pereira, J.L. (1998) Lê développement de la maladíe du balaide sorcière du cacaoyer: stratégies de lutte apliquées. Plantations 5, 435–440.Google Scholar
  66. Pereira, J.L. (2000a) Management of witches’ broom disease of cocoa: A contemporary retrospective. Cocoa Producers’ Alliance, 2000, Lagos, Nigeria. 1, 41.Google Scholar
  67. Pereira, J.L. (2000b) Witches’ broom of cocoa – 100 years later. In: 12th International Cocoa Research Conference, 1996, Salvador, BA. Brazil. Lagos: Cocoa Producers’ Alliance. pp. 87–91.Google Scholar
  68. Pereira, J.L. and Valle, R.R. (2002) Development in management of witches’ broom disease of cocoa in Bahia, Brazil. In: 13th International Cocoa Research Conference, 2000. Cocoa Producers’ Alliance, Kota Kinabalu, Lagos, Nigeria:, p.753–760.Google Scholar
  69. Pereira, J.L., Ram, A. Figueiredo, J.M. de, Almeida, L.C.C. (1990) First occurrence of witches’ broom disease in the principal cocoa-growing region of Brazil. Tropical Agriculture 67(2), 188–189.Google Scholar
  70. Pereira, J.L., Almeida, L.C.C., Santos, S. (1996) Witches’ broom disease of cocoa in Bahia: attempts at eradication and containment. Crop Protection 15, 743–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pike, E.E. (1933) The vegetative propagation of cacao. II. Softwood cuttings. Annual Report on Cocoa Research, 1932, Trinidad, pp. 3–9.Google Scholar
  72. Pires, J.L. (2003) Avaliação quantitativa e molecular de germoplasma para o melhoramento do cacaueiro com ênfase na produtividade, qualidade de frutos e resistência a doenças. Tese (Doutorado), Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brasil. 328p.Google Scholar
  73. Pires, J.L. Monteiro, W.R. Pinto, L.R.M. and Luz, E.D.M.N. (1999) A proposal for cocoa breeding. In: 12th International Cocoa Research Conference, Lagos, Nigéria, Cocoa Producers’ Alliance. pp. 287–292.Google Scholar
  74. Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and witches’ broom disease of South America, with notes on other species of Theobroma. In: Report on visit to Ecuador, the Amazon Valley and Colombia, April 1937 – April 1938. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 58p.Google Scholar
  75. Pugh, T. Fouet, O. Risterucci, A.M. Bottier, P. Deletrez, C. Curtois, B. Clement, D. Abouladze, M. Larmande, P. N’goran, J. Lanaud, C. (2004) A new codominant markers Based cocoa linkage map: Development and integration of 201 new microsatellites markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 108, 1151–1161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Purseglove J.W. (1968) Theobroma cacao L.. In: Tropical crops. Dicotyledons 2. (Purseglove, J.W. (Ed.). John Wiley and Sons Inc. London, United Kingdom. pp. 571–599.Google Scholar
  77. Queiroz, V.T. Guimarães, C.T. Anhert, D. Schuster, I. Daher, R.T. Pereira, M.G. Miranda, V.R.M. Loguercio, L.L. Barros, E.G. and Moreira, M.A. (2003) Identification of a major QTL in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) associated with resistance to witches’ broom disease. Plant Breeding 122, 268–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Risterucci, A.M. Paulin, D. Ducamp M. N’Goran J.A.K. and Lanaud, C. (2003) Identification of QTLs related to cocoa resistance to three species of Phytophthora. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 108, 168–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Russel, T.A. (1952) The vigour of some cacao hybrids. Tropical Agriculture 29, 102–106.Google Scholar
  80. Saunders, J.A., Hemeida, A.A. and Mischke, S. (2001) USDA DNA fingerprinting program for identification of Theobroma cacao accessions. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on New Technologies and Cocoa Breeding, 16–17 October 2000, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, pp 108–114.Google Scholar
  81. Saunders, J.A. Mischke, S. Leamy, E.A. and Hemeida, A.A. (2004) Selection of international molecular standards for DNA fingerprinting of Theobroma cacao. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 110, 41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sounigo, O. Lanaud, C. Lachenaud, P. and Bastide P. (1994) Etude du comportement en croisement de quatorze haploïdes doublés de cacaoyer (Theobroma cacao L.) en Côte d’Ivoire. In: 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, July 24–27, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire. Cocoa Producers’ Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria, pp. 437–442.Google Scholar
  83. Sounigo, O. Lachenaud, P. Bastide P. Cilas, C. N’Goran J. and Lanaud, C. (2003) Assessment of the value of doubled haploids as progenitors in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) breeding. Journal of Applied Genetics 44, 339–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Tahi, M. Kebe, I. Eskes, A.B. Ouattara, S. Sangare, A. and Mondeil, F. (2000) Rapid screening of cacao genotypes for field resistance to Phytophthora palmivora using leaves, twigs and roots. European Journal of Plant Pathology 106, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tanksley, S.D. Miller, J. Paterson, A. and Bernatsky, R. (1988) Molecular mapping of plant chromosomes. In: J.P. Gustafson, and R. Appels (Eds.) New York. Plenum Press, pp. 157–173.Google Scholar
  86. Yamada, M.M. and Guries, R.P. (2000) Methodology, polymorphism and electrophoretic analysis of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) isozymes. Agrotrópica 12, 1–6.Google Scholar
  87. Yamada, M.M. and Lopes, U.V. (1999) Paternity analysis of cacao trees selected for resistance to witches’ broom in plantations of Bahia, Brazil. Agrotrópica 11, 83–88.Google Scholar
  88. Yamada, M.M. Faleiro, F.G. Lopes, U. Pires, J.L. Dantas Neto, A. Flores, A.B. and Faleiro, A.S.G. (2003) Genetic variability and heterozygosity of cocoa accessions of Parinari (Pa) population, based on microsatellite markers. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 3, 289–296.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilson Reis Monteiro
    • 1
  • Uilson Vanderlei Lopes
  • Didier Clement
  1. 1.CEPLAC Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau (Cepec)IlhéusBrazil

Personalised recommendations