Advertisement

Olive Breeding

  • Andrea Fabbri
  • Maurizio Lambardi
  • Yelda Ozden-Tokatli

Abstract

The olive (Olea europaea L.) is, at the same time, one of the most ancient domesticated fruit trees and the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world, covering an area of about 7.5 million hectares. The recent diffusion of olive outside its traditional area of cultivation, the Mediterranean basin, together with a continuous trend in the modernisation of its industry, has greatly increased in recent years the demand for improved cultivars by olive growers. Hence, programmes of clonal selection and cross-breeding have been started in the main olive growing countries, aiming at selecting genotypes characterised by early bearing, resistance to pests and to abiotic stresses (such as frost and drought), limited alternate bearing, suitability to intensive culture and to mechanical harvesting, as well as high-quality productions, in terms of both organoleptic characteristics of fruits and oils, and high contents in substances useful for human health. This chapter reviews the recent advances in olive breeding, providing extended information on flower biology, main world cultivars, germplasm collection and preservation, propagation techniques, main characters for olive improvement and traditional breeding techniques (clonal selection, cross breeding and mutagenesis). In addition, information on the recent developments of olive biotechnology for the improvement and the safeguard of genetic resources (tissue culture, synthetic seed technology, genetic transformation and cryopreservation) is also reported.

Keywords

Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Olive Tree Clonal Selection Synthetic Seed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acerbo, G. (1937) La marcia storica dell’olivo nel Mediterraneo. Proc.“Societá per il Progresso delle Scienze”, Vol.I (2): 1–22.Google Scholar
  2. Aitken-Christie, J., Kozai, T. and Smith, M.A.L. (1995) Glossary. In: J. Aitken-Christie, T. Kozai and M.A.L. Smith (Eds.), Automation and Environmental Control in Plant Tissue Culture. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. ix–xii.Google Scholar
  3. Amane, M., Luaret, R., Hany, V., Ouazzani, N., Debain, C., Vivier, G. and Deguilloux M.F. (1999) Chloroplast-DNA variation in cultivated wild olive (Olea europaea L.). TAG 99, 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angiolillo, A., Mencuccini, M. and Baldoni, L. (1999) Olive genetic diversity assessed using ampilified length polymorphisms. TAG 98, 411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antognozzi, E., Famiani, F., Proietti, P., Pannelli, G. and Alfei, B. (1994) Frost resistance of some olive cultivars during the winter. Acta Hort. 356, 152–155.Google Scholar
  6. Bandelj, D., Jakše, J. and Javornik, B. (2002) DNA fingerprinting of olive varieties by microsatellite markers. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 40(3), 185–190.Google Scholar
  7. Bao, Z.H., Ma, Y.F., Liu, J.F., Wang, K.J., Zhang, P.F., Ni, D.X. and Yang, W.Q. (1980) Induction of plantlets from the hypocotyl of Olea europaea L. in vitro. Acta Bot. Sin. 2, 96–97.Google Scholar
  8. Barranco, D. (1999) Variedades y patrones. In: D. Barranco, R. Fernández-Escobar and L. Rallo (Eds.) El Cultivo del Olivo, 3rd Ed. Ediciones Mundi-Prensa, Madrid, pp. 63–89.Google Scholar
  9. Barranco, D. and Rallo, L. (1984) Las Variedades de Olivo Cultivadas en Andalucia. Junta de Andalucia (Ed.) Consejeria de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion, Cordoba, pp. 33–63.Google Scholar
  10. Bartolini, G., Roselli, G. and Di Milia G. (1979) Relazione tra densità stomatica e vigoria dell’olivo. Riv. Ortoflorofrutt. It. 63, 391–398.Google Scholar
  11. Bartolini, G., Leva, A.R. and Benelli, A. (1990) Advances in in vitro culture of the olive: propagation of cv. Maurino. Acta Hort. 286, 41–44.Google Scholar
  12. Bartolini, S., Guerriero, R., Loreti, F. and Vitagliano, C. (1995) Caratterizzazione morfo-biologica e produttiva di tre interessanti cloni della cultivar “Leccino” di recente selezione. Proc. Congress “L’olivicoltura Mediterranea: stato e prospettive della coltura e della ricerca”. Rende, Italy, pp. 161–166.Google Scholar
  13. Bartolini, G., Prevost, G., Messeri, C. and Carignani, G. (1998) Olive Germplasm: Cultivars and World-wide Collections. FAO, Rome, pp. 459.Google Scholar
  14. Bartolini, G., Di Monte, G., Rea, E. and Toponi, M.A. (1999) Protein patterns in response to cold stress on clones of Olea europaea L., cv. Leccino. Acta Hort. 474, 481–483.Google Scholar
  15. Bartolini, G. and Petruccelli, R. (2002) Classification, origin, diffusion and history of the olive. FAO, Rome, pp. 74.Google Scholar
  16. Bartolozzi, F. and Fontanazza, G. (1999) Assessment of frost tolerance in olive (Olea europaea L.). Sci. Hort. 81, 309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Belaj, A., Trujillo, I., de la Rosa, R., Rallo, L. and Jiménez, M.J. (2001) Polymorphism and discriminatine capacity of randomly amplified polymorphic markers in an olive germplasm bank. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 126, 64–71.Google Scholar
  18. Belaj, A., Satovic, Z., Cipriani, G., Baldoni, L., Testolin, R., Rallo, R. and Trujillo, I. (2003) Comparative study of the discriminating capacity of RAPD, AFLP and SSR markers and of their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationships in olive. TAG 107, 736–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Belaj, A., Trujillo, I., Rallo, L. and Baldoni, L. (2004) Use of molecular markers (RAPDs and AFLPs) to distinguish intracultivar variability among individuals obtained from clonal selection of the olive cultivars ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’. HortSci. 39 (7), 1566–1570.Google Scholar
  20. Bellini, E. (1993) Variabilità genetica ed ereditarietà di alcuni caratteri in semenzali d’incrocio di olivo. Olivae 49, 21–34.Google Scholar
  21. Bellini, E., Giordani, E. and Parlati, M.V. (2002) Three new olive cultivars obtained by cross-breeding. Acta Hort. 586, 221–223.Google Scholar
  22. Bellini, E., Giordani, E. and Nin, S. (2003) Genetica e miglioramento. In: P. Fiorino (Ed.) Olea. Edagricole, Bologna, pp. 113–143.Google Scholar
  23. Ben Ahmed, C., Ben Rouina, B. and Boukhriss, M. (2006) Olive tree (Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali) under salt stress: water relations and ions content. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 471–475.Google Scholar
  24. Benelli, C., Fabbri, A., Grassi, S., Lambardi, M. and Rugini, E. (2001a) Histology of somatic embryogenesis in mature tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.). J. Hort. Sci. & Biotech. 76,112–119.Google Scholar
  25. Benelli, C., De Carlo, A., Lambardi, M. and Lynch, P.T. (2001b) Vitrification of shoot tips, nodal segments and embryogenic tissue of olive (Olea europaea L.) for germplasm cryopreservation. Acta Hort. 560, 137–140.Google Scholar
  26. Benlloch, M., Marin, L. and Fernández-Escobar, R. (1994) Salt tolerance of various olive varieties. Acta Hort. 356, 215–217.Google Scholar
  27. Besnard, G., Baradat, P., Chevalier, D., Tagmount, A. and Bervillé, A. (2001) Genetic differentiation in the olive complex (Olea europaea) revealed by RAPDs and RFLPs in the rRNA genes. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 48, 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Besnard, G., Khadari, B., Baradat, P. and Berville, A. (2002) Olea europaea (Oleaceae) phylogeography based on chloroplast DNA polymorphism. Theor. Appl. Genet. 104, 1353–1361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Binet, M.N., Lepetit, M., Weil, J.H. and Tessier, L.H. (1991) Analysis of a sunflower polyubiquitin promoter by transient expression. Plant Sci. 79, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bracci, T., Sebastiani, L., Busconi, M., Fogher, C., Belaj, A. and Trujillo, I. (2006a) Molecular characterization of Liguria region olive germplasm. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 65–70.Google Scholar
  31. Bracci, T., Minnocci, A., Marchi, S., Busconi, M., Fogher, C. and Sebastiani, L. (2006b) Olive germplasm variability in Monti Pisani (Tuscany) area. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 159–164.Google Scholar
  32. Breton, C., Claux, D., Metton, I., Skorski, G. and Bervillé, A. (2004) Comparative study for DNA preparation from olive oil samples to identify cultivar SSR alleles in commercial oil samples: possible forensic applications. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 531–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Breviglieri, N. and Battaglia, E. (1954) Ricerche cariologiche in O. europaea L. Caryologia 61, 271–283.Google Scholar
  34. Briccoli Bati C., Godino, G. and Nuzzo, V. (2002) Preliminary agronomic evolution of two cultivars of olive trees obtained from micropropagation methods. Acta Hort. 586, 867–870.Google Scholar
  35. Briccoli Bati, C., Godino, G. Monardo, D. and Nuzzo, V. (2006) Influence of propagation techniques on growth and yield of olive trees cultivars ‘Carolea’ and ‘Nocellara Etnea’. Sci. Hortic. \textbf109 (2), 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Buffa, R., Motisi, A., Cutino, I. and Caruso, T. (2006) Effect of rootstock vigour on dry matter partitioning in olive (Olea europaea L.). Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 371–376.Google Scholar
  37. Busconi, M., Sebastiani, L. and Fogher, C. (2006) Development of Scar markers for germplasm characterization in olive tree (Olea europaea L.). Mol. Breed. 17, 59–68.Google Scholar
  38. Caballero, J.M., Del Rio, C., Barranco, D. and Trujillo, I. (2006) The olive world germplasm bank of Cordoba, Spain. Olea 25, 14–19.Google Scholar
  39. Cañas, L.A. and Benbadis, A. (1988) Plant regeneration from cotyledon fragments of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.). Plant Sci. 54, 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cañas, L.A., Avila, J., Vicente, M. and Benbadis, A. (1992) Micropropagation of olive (Olea europaea L.). In: Y.P.S. Bajaj (Ed.) Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol 17. High-tech and Micropropagation I. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, pp. 493–505.Google Scholar
  41. Cantos, M., Troncoso, J., Liñán, J., Rapaport, H. and Troncoso, A. (2002) Obtaining salt (NaCl) tolerant olive plants: I) Some physiological and anatomical characteristics of olive plants growing in harsh saline zones. Acta Hort. 586, 441–444.Google Scholar
  42. Chartzoulakis, K., Loupassaki, M. and Bertaki, M. (2006) Response of 12 olive cultivars to NaCl salinity. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 403–410.Google Scholar
  43. Chevalier, A. (1948) L’origine de l’Olivier cultivé et ses variations. Revue Internationale de Botanique Appliquée et d’Agriculture Tropicale. 28, 1–25.Google Scholar
  44. Ciferri, A. (1950) Eléments pour l’étude de l’origine et de l’évolution de l’Olivier cultivé. Acte XII du Congrès International d’Oléiculture 1, 189–194.Google Scholar
  45. Ciferri, R. and Breviglieri, N. (1942) Introduzione ad una classificazione morfo-ecologica dell olivo coltivato in Italia. L’Olivicoltore 1, 1–2.Google Scholar
  46. Ciferri, R., Marinucci, M. and Morettini, A. (1942) Dati preliminari per una sistematica delle razze di olivo in coltura. L’Olivicoltore 1, 3–7.Google Scholar
  47. Cimato, A., Cantini, C., Sani, G. and Marranci, M. (1997) Il germoplasma dell’olivo in Toscana. Regione Toscana/CNR/ARSIA, Florence.Google Scholar
  48. Cipriani, G., Marrazzo, M.T., Marconi, R., Cimato, A. and Testolin, R. (2002) Microsatellite markers isolated in olive are suitable for individual fingerprinting and reveal polymorphism within ancient cultivars (Olea europaea L.). TAG 104, 223–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cresti, M., Ciampolini, F., Tattini, M. and Cimato, A. (1994) Effect of salinity on productivity and oil quality of olive (Olea europaea L.) plants. Adv. Hort. Sci. 8, 211–215.Google Scholar
  50. Cresti, M., Linskens, H.F., Mulcahy, D.L., Bush, S., Di Stilio, V., Xu, M.Y., Vignani, R. and Cimato, A. (1996) Preliminary communication about the identification of DNA in leaves and olive oil of Olea europaea. Adv. Hort. Sci. 10, 105–107.Google Scholar
  51. De la Rosa, R., Angiolillo, A., Guerriero, C., Pellegrini, M., Rallo, L., Besnard, G., Bervillè, A., Martin, A. and Baldoni, L. (2003) A first linkage map of olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars using RAPD, AFLP and SSR markers. TAG 106, 1273–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. De la Rosa, R., James, C.M. and Tobutt, K.R. (2004) Using microsatellites for paternity testing in olive progenies. Hort. Sci. 39(2), 351–354.Google Scholar
  53. Del Rio, C., García-Fernandez, M.D. and Caballero, J.M. (2002) Variability and classification of olive cultivars by their vigor. Acta Hort. 586, 229–232.Google Scholar
  54. Diaz, A., Rallo, P. and de la Rosa R. (2006a) Self- and cross-incompatibility mechanism: a strategy to ensure high variability in olive populations. Olea 25, 29–35.Google Scholar
  55. Diaz, A., De la Rosa, R., Martin, A. and Rallo, P. (2006b) Development, characterization and inheritance of new microsatellits in olive (Olea europaea L.) and evaluation of their usefulness in cultivar identification and genetic relationship studies. Tree Genet. Genomes 2, 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Donini B. (1975) The use of radiation to induce useful mutations in vegetatively propagated plants. Wageningen, IAEA, Vienna, pp. 55–65.Google Scholar
  57. Donini B. (1976) Use of irradiation to induce useful mutations in fruit trees. Mutation Breeding Newsletter 8, 7–8.Google Scholar
  58. Durante, M., Petrucelli, R., Bartolini, G. and Bernardi, R. (1992) Impiego delle proteine di riserva per l’identificazione delle cultivar di olivo (Olea europaea L.) Proc. Congress “Olive Oil Quality”. Florence, pp. 57–60.Google Scholar
  59. Durante, M., Pighini, M., Sassoli, O. and Bartolini, G. (1999) Characterisation of olive (Olea europaea L.) genome and cultivar identification. Acta Hort. 474, 147–150.Google Scholar
  60. Ergulen, E., Ozkaya, M.T., Ulger, S. and Ozilbey, N. (2002) Identification of some Turkish olive cultivars by using RAPD-PCR technique. Acta Hort. 586, 91–95.Google Scholar
  61. Essadki, M., Ouazzani, N., Lumaret, R. and Moumni, M. (2006) ISSR variation in olive-tree cultivars from Morocco and other western countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Gen. Res. Crop Evol. 53, 475–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Essid, H. (2006) Project for the conservation, characterisation, collection and utilisation of genetic resources in olive (RESGEN). Olea 25, 39–41.Google Scholar
  63. Fabbri, A. (2006) Olive propagation: new challenges and scientific research. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Special Seminars and Invited Lectures. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 411–421.Google Scholar
  64. Fabbri, A., Hormaza, J.I. and Polito, V.S. (1995) Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis of olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 120, 538–542.Google Scholar
  65. Fabbri, A. and Benelli, C. (2000) Flower bud induction and differentiation in olive. J. Hort. Sci. & Biotech. \textbf75 (2), 131–141.Google Scholar
  66. Fabbri, A., Bartolini, G., Lambardi, M. and Kailis, S. (2004) Olive Propagation Manual. CSIRO Publ., Australia, pp. 130.Google Scholar
  67. Falistocco, E. and Tosti N. (1996) Cytogenetic investigation in Olea europaea L. J. Genet.& Breed. \textbf50 (3), 235–238.Google Scholar
  68. Fanizza, G. (1982) Genetic variability and fruit character associations in table olives (Olea europaea L.). Riv. Ortoflorofrutt. It. 66, 115–120.Google Scholar
  69. Farahani, F., Peyvandi, M., Ataii, S. and Hosseini Mazinani, M. (2006) In vitro micrografting: a technique to improve multiplication and rooting plantlets. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 307–309.Google Scholar
  70. Fernandez-Escobar, R., Gomez-Valledor, G. and Rallo L. (1983) Influence of pistil extract and temperature on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth of olive cultivars. J. Hortic. Sci. \textbf58 (2), 219–227.Google Scholar
  71. Fodale, A.S., Mulè, R., Briccoli Bati, C. and Tagliavia, M. (2006) Tolerance to brackish-water of in vitro selected olive seedlings. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 393–396.Google Scholar
  72. Fontanazza, G. (1993) Presentamos el cultivar I-77. Olivae 22, 35–37.Google Scholar
  73. Fontanazza, G., Baldoni, L. and Corona, C. (1990) Osservazioni preliminari sul valore agronomico di una nuova cultivar da olio: ‘Fs-17’. Proc. “Problematiche qualitative dell’olio di oliva”. Accad. Nazionale dell’Olivo, Spoleto, Italy, pp. 69–75.Google Scholar
  74. Fontanazza, G. and Bartolozzi, F. (1998) Olive. In: G.T. Scarascia Mugnozza and M.A. Pagnotta (Eds.) Italian Contribution to Plant Genetics and Breeding. Proc. “XV$ˆ$ Congress of Eucarpia”. Viterbo, pp. 723–737.Google Scholar
  75. Ganino, T. and Fabbri, A. (2005) Genetic characterization of Olea europaea L. germplasm in Northern Italy. Abstracts “Vth International Symposium on Olive Growing”. Izmir, Turkey, p. 127.Google Scholar
  76. Ganino, T., Bartolini, A. and Fabbri, A. (2006a) The classification of olive germplasm- A review. J. Hort. Sci. & Biotech. \textbf81 (3), 319–334.Google Scholar
  77. Ganino, T., Beghè, D., Nisi, R. and Fabbri, A. (2006b) Provenance of Olea europaea L. germplasm of Emilia. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 77–85.Google Scholar
  78. García-Berenguer, A. (1978) Selection clonal en olivo (Olea europaea L.). Olea (June), 7–15.Google Scholar
  79. García-Berenguer, A. and Durán González, R. (1990) Mineral media for in vitro propagation of juvenile ‘Picual’ microcuttings. Acta Hort. 286, 61–64.Google Scholar
  80. Garcia-Fèrriz L., Ghorbel R., Ybarra M., Marí A., Belaj A., Trujillo I. (2002) Micropropagation from adult olive trees. Acta Hort. 586: 879–882.Google Scholar
  81. Gemas, V.J.V., Almadanim, M.C., Tenreiro, R., Martins, A. and Fevereiro, P. (2004) Genetic diversity in the olive tree (Olea europaea) cultivated in Portugal revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers. Gen. Res. Crop Evol. 51, 501–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gilad, F. and Lavee, S. (1974) Callus formation and organogenesis from various parts of developing olive embryos. Abstracts “III International Congress on Plant Tissue and Cell Culture”. Leicester, UK, p. 87.Google Scholar
  83. Giorgio, V., Gallotta, A., Camposeo, S., Roncasaglia, R. and Dradi, G. (2006) Advances in improving micropropagation of olive (Olea europaea var. Sativa I.): preliminary results on 18 olive varieties belonging to Italian and Spanish germplasm. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 441–444.Google Scholar
  84. Grati Kamoun N., Khlif M., Ayadi M., Karray B. (2002) Clonal selection of olive tree variety “Chemlali Sfax”: preliminary results. Acta Hort. 586: 147–150.Google Scholar
  85. Grati Kamoun, N., Mahmoud, F., Rebai, A., Gargouri, A., Panaud, O. and Saar, A. (2006) Genetic diversity of Tunisian olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cultivars assessed by AFLP markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. \textbf53 (2), 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gucci, R., Tattini, M. and Bombardini, L. (1995) Mecchanismi di resistenza allo stress osmosalino in olivo. Proc. Congress “L’Olivicoltura Mediterranea: stato e prospettive della coltura e della ricerca”. Rende, Italy, pp. 315–322.Google Scholar
  87. Gucci, R. and Tattini, M. (1997) Salinity tolerance in olive. Hort. Rev. 21, 177–214.Google Scholar
  88. Hartmann, H.T. (1967) “Swan Hill” a new ornamental fruitless olive for California. California Agriculture 21, 4–5.Google Scholar
  89. Hartmann, H.T., Schaathorst, W.C. and Whisler, J.E. (1971). ‘Oblonga’. A clonal olive rootstock resistant to verticillosis wilt. Calif. Agric. 6, 12–13.Google Scholar
  90. Heimler, D., Cimato, A., Pieroni, A., Sani, G. and Tattini, M. (1994) Seasonal trend of flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, and biflanoids in ten olive cultivars. Acta Hort. 356, 372–374.Google Scholar
  91. Hess, J., Kadereit, J.W. and Vargas, P. (2000) The colonization history of Olea europaea L. in Macaronesia based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) sequences, randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), and intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR). Mol. Ecol. 9,857–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Iannì, G., Mariotti, P., Cimato, A. and Cerreti, S. (1995) Versione telematica del germoplasma di olivo. Proc. Congress “L’Olivicoltura Mediterranea: stato e prospettive della coltura e della ricerca”. Rende, Italy, pp. 213–218.Google Scholar
  93. King, J.R. (1938) Morphological development of the fruit of the olive. Hilgardia 11(8), 437–458.Google Scholar
  94. La Mantia, M., Lain, O., Caruso, T. and Testolin, R. (2005) SSR-based DNA fingerprints reveal the genetic diversity of Sicilian olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm. J. Hort. Sci. & Biotec. 80(5), 528–532.Google Scholar
  95. Lambardi, M., Benelli, C., Amorosi, S., Branca, C., Caricato, G. and Rugini, E. (1999). Microprojectile-DNA delivery in somatic embryos of olive (Olea europaea L.) Acta Hort. 474, 505–509.Google Scholar
  96. Lambardi, M. and De Carlo, A. (2002) Application of tissue culture to the germplasm conservation of temperate broad-leaf trees. In: S.M. Jain and K. Ishii (Eds.) Micropropagation of Woody Trees and Fruits. Kluwer Ac. Pub., Dordrecht, pp. 815–840.Google Scholar
  97. Lambardi, M., Lynch, P.T., Benelli, C., Mehra, A. and Siddika, A. (2002) Towards the cryopreservation of olive germplasm. Adv. Hort. Sci. 16, 165–174.Google Scholar
  98. Lambardi, M. and Rugini, E. (2003) Micropropagation of olive (Olea europaea L.). In: S.M. Jain and K. Ishii (Eds.) Micropropagation of Woody Trees and Fruits. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 621–646.Google Scholar
  99. Lambardi, M., Benelli, C., Ozden-Tokatli, Y., Ozudogru, E.A. and Gumusel, F (2006a) A novel approach to olive micropropagation: the temporary immersion system. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 319–326.Google Scholar
  100. Lambardi, M., Benelli, C., Ozudogru, E.A. and Ozden-Tokatli, Y. (2006b) Synthetic seed technology in ornamental plants. In: J.A. Teixeria da Silva (Ed.). Floriculture, Ornamental and Plant Biotechnology: Advances and Topical Issues, Global Science Books, UK, pp. 347–354.Google Scholar
  101. La Porta, N., Zacchini, M., Bartolini, S., Viti, R. and Roselli, G. (1994) The frost hardiness of some clones of olive cv. Leccino. J. Hort. Sci. \textbf69 (3), 433–435.Google Scholar
  102. Lavee, S. (1978) “Kadesh” table olive. HortScience 13, 62–63.Google Scholar
  103. Lavee, S. (1990) Aims, methods, and advances in breeding of new olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Acta Hort. 286, 23–36.Google Scholar
  104. Lavee, S. (2006) Biennial bearing in olive (Olea europaea L.). Olea 25, 5–13.Google Scholar
  105. Lavee, S., Haskal, A. and Wodner, M. (1986) “Barnea”, a new olive cultivar from f\‘{\i}rst breeding generation. Olea 17, 95–99.Google Scholar
  106. Lavee, S. and Avidan, N. (1994) Protein content and composition of leaves and shoot bark in relation to alternate bearing of olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Acta Hort. 356, 143–147.Google Scholar
  107. Lavee, S., Harshemesh, H., Haskal, A., Meni, Y., Wodner, M., Ogrodovich, A., Avidan, B, Wiesman, Z., Avidan, N. and Trapero, A. (1999) “Maalot” a new orchard resistant cultivar to Peacock leaf Spot (Spilocaea oleagina). Olivae 78, 51–59.Google Scholar
  108. Lavee, S. and Avidan, B. (2002) Olive germplasm development. Past & present approach to genetic improvement. Acta Hort. 586, 47–56.Google Scholar
  109. Leitão, F. (1990) Productivity of twenty olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Acta Hort. 286, 69–72.Google Scholar
  110. Leitão, F., De Fatima Potes, M., Leonilde Calado, M. and José de Almeida, F. (1986) Descrição de 22 variedades de oliveira cultivadas em Portugal. Ministério da Agricultura, Pescas e Alimentação, Direccão Geral de Planeamento e Agricultura, Lisboa, pp. 5–13.Google Scholar
  111. Leva, A., Muleo, R. and Petruccelli, R. (1995) Long-term somatic embryogenesis from immature olive cotyledons. J. Hort. Sci. 70(3), 417–421.Google Scholar
  112. Leva, A., Petruccelli, R., Montagni, G. and Muleo, R. (2002) Field performance of micropropagated olive plants (cv. Maurino): morphological and molecular features. Acta Hort. 586,891–893.Google Scholar
  113. Lopes, M.S., Mendonça, D., Sefc, K.M., Sabino Gil, F. and da Camara Machado, A. (2004) Genetic evidence of intra-cultivar variability within Iberian olive cultivars. Hort. Sci. 39(7), 1562–1565.Google Scholar
  114. Loukas, M. and Krimbas, C.B. (1983) History of olive cultivars based on their genetic distances. J. Hort. Sci. 58, 121–127.Google Scholar
  115. Marin, L., Benlloch, M. and Fernandez-Escobar, R. (1995) Screening of olive cultivars for salt resistance. Sci. Hort. 64, 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Martinez, D., Arroyo-Garcia, R. and Revilla, A. M. (1999) Cryoconservation of in vitro grown shoot-tips of Olea europaea L. var. Arbequina. CryoLetters 20, 29–36.Google Scholar
  117. Mekuria, G.T., Collins, G.G. and Sedgley, M. (1999) Genetic variability between different accesions of some common commercial olive cultivars. J. Hort. Sci. and Biotechnol. 74, 309–314.Google Scholar
  118. Mencuccini, M. (1995) Micropropagazione e miglioramento genetico in vitro dell’olivo: stato dell’arte e prospettive future. Frutticoltura 12, 73–82.Google Scholar
  119. Mencuccini, M. and Rugini, E. (1993) In vitro shoot regeneration from olive cultivar tissue. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 32, 283–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mencuccini, M., Micheli, M., Angiolillo, A. and Baldoni, L. (1999) Genetic transformation of olive (Olea europaea L.) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Acta Hort. 474, 515–519.Google Scholar
  121. Micheli, M., Standardi, A., Dell’Orco, P. and Mencuccini, M. (2002). Preliminary studies on the synthetic seed and encapsulation technologies of vitro-derived olive explants. Acta Hort. 586, 911–914.Google Scholar
  122. Micheli, M., Hafiz, I.A., Bazzurri, N. and Standardi, A. (2006) Methodological development for the synthetic seeds production of Moraiolo. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 155–158.Google Scholar
  123. Mitrakos, K., Alexaki, A. and Papadimitriou, P. (1992) Dependence of olive morphogenesis on callus origin and age. J. Plant Physiol. 139, 269–273.Google Scholar
  124. Montemurro, C., Simeone, R., Pasqualone, A., Ferrar, E. and Blanco, A. (2005) Genetic relationships and cultivar identification among 112 olive accessions using AFLP and SSR markers. J. Hort. Sci. & Biotech. 80, 105–110.Google Scholar
  125. Montemurro, C., Ashtar, S., Khatib, M., Sabetta, W., Dubla, E. and Blanco, A. (2006) Genetic diversity assessment of Olea europaea L. Syrian germplasm by SSR and AFLP markers. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy,pp. 165–168.Google Scholar
  126. Morettini, A. (1954a) Ricerche sulla anatomia delle foglie delle piu’ note varieta’ di olivo toscane in relazione alla loro resistenza al Cycloconium. Notiziario Malattie Piante 28, 3–11.Google Scholar
  127. Morettini, A. (1954b) Mutazioni gemmarie nell’olive e loro applicazione per il migliramento della coltura. Italia Agricola 91, 197–204.Google Scholar
  128. Morettini, A. (1961) Selezione clonale del Moraiolo e del Frantoio. Primi favorevoli risultalti. L’Italia Agricola 1, 3–11.Google Scholar
  129. Mulas, M. (1994) Genetic variability of histological characteristics in olive fruits. Acta Hort. 356, 70–73.Google Scholar
  130. Mulè, R., Fodale, A., Parlati, M. and Tucci, A. (1992) “Tonda Dolce Partanna”: nuova varietà di olivo da mensa a maturazione precocissima. Riv. Fruttic. Ortofloric. 54, 25–29.Google Scholar
  131. Mulè, R., Fodale, A.S., Parlati ,M. and Tucci A. (1994) Selezione clonale dell’olivo nella Valle del Belice. Riv. Frutt. 7–8, 49–54.Google Scholar
  132. Muleo, R., Cerbini, G., Miano, D., Latini, P., Nesta, M., Cirilli, M., Intrieri, M.C., Baldoni, L. and Rugini, E. (2006) High-resolution DNA melting analysis to simultaneously scan mutations and genotype olive germplasm. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 109–116.Google Scholar
  133. Murashige, T. and Skoog, F. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nisi, R., Beghè, D., Benelli, C., Ganino, T., Lambardi, M. and Fabbri, A. (2006) Cryopreservation of olive germplasm by shoot-tip vitrification. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Vol I. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 449–452.Google Scholar
  135. Orinos, T. and Mitrakos, K. (1991) Rhizogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in calli from wild olive (Olea europaea var. sylvestris (Miller) Lehr) mature zygotic embryos. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 27, 183–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ouazzani, N. and Lumaret, R. (2006) Wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Olea 25, 38.Google Scholar
  137. Owen, C.A., Bita, E.C., Banilas, G., Hajjar, S.E., Sellianakis, V., Aksoy, U., Hepaksoy, S., Chamoun, R., Talhook, S.N., Metzidakis, I., Hatzopoulos, P. and Kalaitzis, P. (2005) AFLP reveals structural details of genetic diversity within cultivated olive germplasm from the Eastern Mediterranean. TAG 110, 1169–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pannelli, G., Famiani, F., Rugini, E., Bignami, D. and Natali, S. (1990) Preliminary characterization of olive somatic mutants from gamma irradiated ‘Frantoio’ plantlets. Acta Hort. 286, 77–80.Google Scholar
  139. Parlati, M.V., Bellini, E., Perri, E., Pandolfi, S., Giordani, E. and Martelli, S. (1994) Genetic improvement of olive: initial observations on selections made in Florence. Acta Hort. 356, 87–90.Google Scholar
  140. Parlati, M.V., Perri, E., Rizzati, B. and Palopoli, A. (1995) Selezione dell’olivo in Calabria clone “Carolea Cefaly”: un interessante clone caratterizzato da precocità di maturazione e pezzatura del frutto superiore alla media. Proc. Congress “L’olivicoltura Mediterranea: stato e prospettive della colturae della ricerca”. Rende, Italy, pp. 193–207.Google Scholar
  141. Perri, E., Parlati, M., Mulé, R. and Fodale, A. (1994) Attempts to generate haploid plants from in vitro cultures of Olea europaea anthers. Acta Hort. 356, 47–50.Google Scholar
  142. Pliego-Alfero, F., Pèrez-Barrance, G., Sànchez-Romero, C. and Mercato, J.A. (2005) Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through biolistic. Abstracts “International Symposium on Biotechnology of Temperate Fruit Crops and Tropical Species”. Florida, USA, p. 122.Google Scholar
  143. Pontikis, C.A., Loukas, N. and Koussonig, G. (1980) The use of biochemical markers to distinguish olive cultivars. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 55, 333–343.Google Scholar
  144. Potes, M.F., Leitao, F., Serrano, J.F. and Ivone Clara, M. (1999) Preliminary studies on isoenzyme polymorphism in cvs. of Olea europaea and Olea oleaster. Acta Hort. 474, 499–503.Google Scholar
  145. Prevost, G. and Mostardini, S. (1999) Gli studiosi dell’olivo e la sua classificazione botanica. Olivae 78, 60–77.Google Scholar
  146. Pritsa, T.S. and Voyiatzis, D.G. (1999) The in vitro morphogenetic capacity of olive embryos, as effected by their developmental stage and the L-arginine and L-glutamine concentration in the nutrient substrate. Acta Hort. 474, 87–90.Google Scholar
  147. Rallo, P., Dorado, G. and Martin, A. (2000) Development of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in olive tree (Olea europaea L.). TAG 101, 984–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rallo, L., Barranco, D., Caballero, J.M., Del Rio, C., Martin, A., Tous, J. and Trujillo, I. (2005). Variedades de Olivo en Espana. Junta de Andalucia, Miniterio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion. Ediciones Mundi-Prensa, Madrid, pp. 496.Google Scholar
  149. Rapoport, H. (1999) Botanica y morfologia. In: D. Barranco, R. Fernandez-Escobar and L. Rallo. (Eds.) El cultivo del olivo, 3rd ed. Mundi-Prensa, Madrid, pp. 35–60.Google Scholar
  150. Revilla, M.A., Pacheco, J., Casares, A. and Rodr‘guez, R. (1996) In vitro reinvigoration of mature olive trees (Olea europaea L.) through micrografting. In Vitro-Plant 32, 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Roselli, G. (1990) Miglioramento genetico dell’olivo: la selezione del materiale di moltiplicazione e la tutela del germoplasma. Proc. Congress “Nuove prospettive nel vivaismo olivicolo”. Pescia, Italy.Google Scholar
  152. Roselli, G. and Donini, B. (1982) ‘Briscola’ nuova cultivar di olivo a sviluppo compatto. Riv. Ortoflofrutt. It. 66, 103–114.Google Scholar
  153. Roselli, G., Benelli, G. and Morelli, D. (1989) Relationship between stomatal density and winter hardiness in olive (Olea europaea L.). J. Hort. Sci. 64(2), 199–203.Google Scholar
  154. Roselli, G. and Venora, G. (1990) Relationship between stomatal size and winter hardiness in the olive. Acta Hort. 286, 89–92.Google Scholar
  155. Ruby, M.J. (1917) Recherches morphologiques et biologiques sur l olivier et sur ses variétés cultivées en France. Ann. Sci. Natur. 20, 1–287.Google Scholar
  156. Rugini, E. (1984) In vitro propagation of some olive (Olea europaea sativa L.) cultivars with different root-ability, and medium development using analytical data from developing shoots and embryos. Sci. Hortic. 24, 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rugini, E. (1986) Olive (Olea europaea L.) In: Y.P.S. Bajaj (Ed.) Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol 1. Trees I. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, pp. 253–267.Google Scholar
  158. Rugini, E. (1988) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in olive (Olea europaea L.). Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 14, 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rugini, E. (1992) Involvement of polyamines in auxin and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced rooting of fruit trees in vitro. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117(3), 532–536.Google Scholar
  160. Rugini, E. and Fedeli, E (1990) Olive (Olea europaea L.) as oilseed crop. In: Y.P.S. Bajaj (Ed.) Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol 10. Legumes and Oilseed Crops I. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, pp. 593–641.Google Scholar
  161. Rugini, E. and Lavee, S. (1992) Olive. In: F.A. Hammerschlag and R.E. Litz (Eds). Biotechnology of Perennial Fruit Crops. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 371–382.Google Scholar
  162. Rugini, E. and Mariotti, D. (1992) Agrobacterium rhizogenes T-DNA genes and rooting in woody species. Acta Hort. 300, 301–308.Google Scholar
  163. Rugini, E. and Pannelli, G. (1993) Olive (Olea europaea L.) biotechnology for short term genetic improvement. Agro-Food-Industry Hi-Tech, pp. 3–5.Google Scholar
  164. Rugini, E, Jacaboni, A. and Luppino, M. (1993) Role of basal shoot darkening and exogenous putrescine treatment on in vitro rooting and on endogenous polyamine changes in difficult-to-root woody species. Sci. Horti. 53, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rugini, E. and Caricato, G. (1995) Somatic embryogenesis and plant recovery from mature tissues of olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) ‘Canino’ and ‘Moraiolo’. Plant Cell Rep. 14,257–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rugini, E., Pezza, A., Muganu, M. and Caricato, G. (1995) Somatic embryogenesis in olive (Olea europaea L.). In: Y.P.S. Bajaj (Ed.). Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol 30. Somatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed I. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, pp. 404–414.Google Scholar
  167. Rugini, E., Pannelli, G., Ceccarelli, M. and Muganu, M. (1996) Isolation of triploid and tetraploid olive (Olea europaea) plants from mixoploid cvs “Frantoio” and “Leccino” mutants, by in vivo and in vitro selection. Plant Breeding 115, 23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rugini, E., Di Francesco, G., Muganu, M., Astolfi, S. and Caricato, G. (1997) The effect of polyamines and hydrogen peroxide on root formation in olive and the role of polyamines as an early marker for rooting ability. In: A. Altman and Y. Waisel (Eds.) Biology of Root Formation. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 65–73.Google Scholar
  169. Rugini, E., Biasi, R. and Muleo, R. (2000) Olive (Olea europaea var. sativa) Transformation. In: S.M. Jain and S.C. Minocha (Eds.) Molecular Biology of Woody Plants, Vol. 2. Kluwer Acad. Press Publ., pp. 245–279.Google Scholar
  170. Rugini, E., Gutiérrez-Resce, P. and Muleo, R. (2006) Overview in the olive biotechnologies. Proc. “2nd Int. Seminar OLIVEBIOTEQ 2006”, Special Seminars and Invited Lectures. Marsala – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, pp. 317–329.Google Scholar
  171. Santos Antunes, A.F., Mohedo, A., Trujillo, I. and Rallo L. (1999) Influence of the genitors on the flowering of olive seedlings under forced growth. Acta Hort. 474, 103–105.Google Scholar
  172. Sanz-Cortéz, F., Parfitt, D.E., Romero, C., Struss, D., Liàcer, G. and Badenes, M. (2003) Intraspecific olive diversity assessed with AFLP. Plant Breeding 122, 173–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Scaramuzzi, F. and Roselli, G. (1986) Olive genetic improvement. Olea 17, 1–17.Google Scholar
  174. Schenk, R.U. and Hildebrandt, A.C. (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can. J. Bot. 50, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sefc, K., Lopes, M., Mendonça, M.S., Rodrigues, D., Dos Santos, M., Laimer Da Câmara Machado, M. and Da Câmaro Machado, A. (2000) Identification of microsatellite loci in olive (Olea europaea) and their characterization in Italian and Iberian olive trees. Molecular Ecology. 9, 1171–1173.Google Scholar
  176. Serrano, J.F., Leitão, F., Potes, M.F., Serrano, M.C., Clara, M.I. and Amaral, L. (1999) Preliminary observations on earliness of flowering and fructification of selected clones of Olea europaea L. Acta Hort. 474, 167–169.Google Scholar
  177. Shibli, R.A., Shatnawi, M., Abu-Ein and Al-Juboory, K.H. (2001) Somatic embryogenesis and plant recovery from callus of ‘Nabali’ olive (Olea europaea L.). Sci. Hort. 88, 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Standardi, A. and Piccioni, E. (1998) Recent perspectives on the synthetic seed technology using non-embryogenic in vitro-derived explants. Int. J. Plant Sci. 159(6), 968–978.Google Scholar
  179. Suárez, M.P., López-Rivares, E.P., Cantero, M.L. and Ordovás, J. (1990) Clonal selection on “Manzanilla de Sevilla”. Acta Hort. 286, 117–119.Google Scholar
  180. Tattini, M., Ponzio, C., Coradeschi, M.A., Tafani, R. and Traversi, M.L. (1994) Mechanisms of salt tolerance in olive plants. Acta Hort. 356, 181–184.Google Scholar
  181. Tavanti, G. (1819) Trattato Teorico – Pratico Completo sull’Olivo. Volume I. Ed. Piatti, Florence. Italy.Google Scholar
  182. Testolin, R. and Lain, O. (2005) DNA extraction from olive oil and PCR amplification of microsatellite markers. Food Chem. Toxicol. \textbf70 (1), 108–112.Google Scholar
  183. Therios, L.N. and Misopolinos, N.D. (1988) Genotypic response to sodium chloride salinity of four major olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). Plant and Soil 106, 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tous, J., Romero, A. and Plana, J. (1993) Clonal selection of the olive population “Arbequina”. Agricultura Revista Agropecuaria 62, 413–416.Google Scholar
  185. Trigui, A., Yengui, A. and Belguith, H. (2006) Olive germplasm in Tunisia. Olea 25, 19–23.Google Scholar
  186. Troncoso, A., Linan, J., Cantos, M., Acebedo, M.M. and Rapoport, H.F. (1999) Feasibility and anatomical development of an in vitro olive cleft-graft. J. Hort. Sci. & Biotech. 74, 584–587.Google Scholar
  187. Trujillo, I., Rallo, L., Carbonell, E.A. and Asins, M.J. (1990) Isoenzymatic variability of olive cultivars according to their origin. Acta Hort. 286, 137–140.Google Scholar
  188. Trujillo, I., de la Rosa, R., Rallo, L. and Belaj, A. (1999) Selection of RAPD markers for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars identification. Acta Hort. 474, 495–498.Google Scholar
  189. Trujillo, I., Ojeda, M.A., Baldoni, L. and Belaj, A. (2006) Olive cultivar identification by means of microsatellites (SSR). Olea 25, 24–27.Google Scholar
  190. Vavilov, N.I. (1951) Phytogeographic basis of plant breeding. The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. Chronica Bot. 13, 1–366.Google Scholar
  191. Voyiatzi, C., Petridou, M., Pritsa, T., Sotiriou, M. and Voyiatzis, D. (2002) Rooting capacity of cuttings as a criterion for the evaluation of the progeny of five olive cultivars. Acta Hort. 586, 927–930.Google Scholar
  192. White, PR. (1939) A Handbook of Plant Tissue Culture. Jacque Cattle Press Inc., Tempe, USA.Google Scholar
  193. Wu, S.B., Collins, G. and Sedgley, M. (2004) A molecular linkage map of olive (Olea europaea L.) based on RAPD, microsatellite, and SCAR markers. Genome \textbf47 (1), 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Yadava, U.L. and Dayton, D.F. (1972) The relation of endogenous abscisic acid to the dwarfing capability of East Malling apple rootstocks. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. \textbf97 (6), 701–705.Google Scholar
  195. Zito, F. and Spina, P. (1956) Come germina il polline dell’olivo. Italia Agricola \textbf93 (5), 413–425.Google Scholar
  196. Zohary, D. (1994) The wild genetic resources of the cultivated olive. Acta Hort. 365, 62–65.Google Scholar
  197. Zohary, D. and Spiegel-Roy, P. (1975) Beginning of fruit growing in the Old World. Science 187, 319–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zohary, D. and Hopf, M. (1994) Domestification of Plants in the Old World. 2nd ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Fabbri
  • Maurizio Lambardi
    • 1
  • Yelda Ozden-Tokatli
  1. 1.IVALSA /Istituto per la Valorizzazione del Legno e delle Specie ArboreeNational Research Council (CNR)Polo ScientificoItaly

Personalised recommendations