Advertisement

Longitudinal Perspectives on Adolescent Street Gangs

  • Marvin D. Krohn
  • Terence P. Thornberry

Abstract

Street gangs have been of primary concern to the public, policy makers, and criminologists for well over a century. There is a very good reason for such concern: gang members contribute disproportionately to the overall level of crime, especially violent and serious offenses (Battin-Pearson, Thornberry, Hawkins, & Krohn, 1998; Curry, 2000; Curry, Ball, & Decker, 1996; Hill, Hawkins, Catalano, Maguin, & Kosterman, 1995; Howell, 2000; Huff, 1996; Klein & Maxson, 2006; Miller, 1975; Thornberry, Krohn, Lizotte, & Chard-Wierschem, 1993; Thornberry, Krohn, Lizotte, Smith, & Tobin, 2003; Thrasher, 1927).

Keywords

Trajectory Group Gang Member Gang Membership Street Gang Youth Gang 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akers, R. L. (1998). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baltes, P. B., & Brim, O. G. (1982). Life span development and behavior (Vol. 4). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Battin-Pearson, S. R., Thornberry, T. P., Hawkins, J. D., & Krohn, M. D. (1998). Gang membership, delinquent peers, and delinquent behavior. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin (Vol. NCJ 171119).Google Scholar
  5. Bendixen, M., Endresen, I. M., & Olweus, D. (2006). Joining and leaving gangs: Selection and facilitation effects on self-reported antisocial behaviour in early adolescence. European Journal of Criminology, 3, 85–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjerregaard, B., & Lizotte, A. J. (1995). Gun ownership and gang membership. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 86, 37–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjerregaard, B., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Gender differences in gang participation, delinquency, and substance use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 9, 329–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bursik, R. J., Jr., & Grasmick, H. G. (1995). The collection of data for gang research. In M. W. Klein, C. L. Maxson, & J. Miller (Eds.), The modern gang reader (pp. 154–157). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  9. Caspi, A., Wright, B. R. E., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1998). Early failure in the labor market: Childhood and adolescent predictors of unemployment in the transition to adulthood. American Sociological Review, 63, 424–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cloward, R. A., & Ohlin, L. E. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity. Glencoe: Free Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, A. K. (1955). Delinquent boys. Glencoe: Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Craig, W. M., Vitaro, F., Gagnon, C., & Tremblay, R. E. (2002). The road to gang membership: Characteristics of male gang and non-gang members from ages 10–14. Social Development, 11, 53–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curry, D. G. (2000). Self-reported gang involvement and officially recorded delinquency. Criminology, 38, 1253–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Curry, D. G., Ball, R. E., & Decker, S. H. (1996). Estimating the national scope of gang crime from law enforcement data. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief (Vol. NCJ 161477).Google Scholar
  15. Decker, S., & Lauritsen, J. (1996). Breaking the bonds of membership: Leaving the gang. In C. R. Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (2nd ed., pp. 103–122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Eitle, D., Gunkel, S., & Van Gundy, K. (2004). Cumulative exposure to stressful life events and male gang membership. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32, 95–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elliott, D. S., & Mihalic, S. (2004). Blueprints for violence prevention. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.Google Scholar
  18. Esbensen, F. A., & Huizinga, D. (1993). Gangs, drugs, and delinquency in a survey of urban youth. Criminology, 31, 565–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Esbensen, F. A., Huizinga, D., & Weiher, A. W. (1993). Gang and non-gang youth: Differences in explanatory factors. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 9, 94–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Esbensen, F. A., & Osgood, D. W. (1997). National evaluation of G.R.E.A.T. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief (Vol. NCJ 167264).Google Scholar
  21. Esbensen, F. A., & Winfree, L. T. (1998). Race and gender differences between gang and non-gang youths: Results from a multisite survey. Justice Quarterly, 15, 505–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fagan, J., & Pabon, E. (1990). Contributions of delinquency and substance use to school dropout among inner-city youths. Youth and Society, 21, 306–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Farrington, D. P. (2005). Conclusions about developmental and life-course theories. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated development and life-course theories of offending (pp. 247–256). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Farrington, D. P., Ohlin, L. E., & Wilson, J. (1986). Understanding and controlling crime: Toward a new research strategy. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  25. Gatti, U., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., & McDuff, P. (2005). Youth gangs, delinquency and drug use: A test of the selection, facilitation, and enhancement hypotheses. Journal of Child Psychology, 46, 1178–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gatti, U., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E., & McDuff, P. (2002). Youth gangs and violent behavior: Results from the Montreal Longitudinal Experimental Study. Paper presented at the XV World Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  27. Gordon, R. A., Lahey, B. B., Kawai, E., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. P. (2004). Antisocial behavior and youth gang membership: Selection and socialization. Criminology, 42, 55–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hagedorn, J. H. (1998). People and folks: Gangs, crime, and the underclass in a rustbelt city. Chicago: Lakeview Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hall, G. P., Thornberry, T. P., & Lizotte, A. J. (2006). The gang facilitation effect and neighborhood risk: Do gangs have a stronger influence on delinquency in disadvantaged areas? In J. F. Short, Jr. & L. A. Hughes (Eds.), Studying youth gangs (pp. 47–61). New York: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  31. Haviland, A. M., & Nagin, D. S. (2005). Causal inferences with group based trajectory models. Psychometrika, 70, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hill, K. G., Chung, I. J., Guo, J., & Hawkins, J. D. (2002). The impact of gang membership on adolescent violence trajectories. Paper presented at the International Society for Research on Aggression, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  33. Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R. D., & Edwards, T. (1996, November). The longitudinal dynamics of gang membership and problem behavior: A replication and extension of the Denver and Rochester gang studies in Seattle. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago.Google Scholar
  34. Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Maguin, E., & Kosterman, R. (1995, November). The role of gang membership in delinquency, substance use, and violent offending. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Boston.Google Scholar
  35. Hill, K. G., Howell, J. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Battin-Pearson, S. R. (1999). Childhood risk factors for adolescent gang membership: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36, 300–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  37. Howell, J. C. (1998). Promising programs for youth gang violence prevention and intervention. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 284–312). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. Howell, J. C. (2000). Youth gang programs and strategies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, OJJDP.Google Scholar
  39. Howell, J. C., & Egley, A., Jr., (2005). Moving risk factors into developmental theories of gang membership. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3, 334–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huff, C. R. (1996). Gangs in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Hughes, L. A. (2005). Studying youth gangs: Alternative methods and conclusions. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21, 98–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huizinga, D., Weiher, A. W., Espiritu, R., & Esbensen, F. A. (2003). Delinquency and crime: Some highlights from the Denver Youth Survey. In T. P. Thornberry & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. NewYork, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  43. Huizinga, D., Weiher, A. W., Menard, S., Espiritu, R., & Esbensen, F. A. (1988). Some not so boring findings from the Denver Youth Survey. Unpublished manuscript. Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  44. Kandel, D. B., Chen, K., & Gill, A. (1995). The impact of drug use on earnings: A life span perspective. Social Forces, 74, 243–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kandel, D. B., Davies, M., Karus, D., & Yamaguchi, K. (1986). The consequences in young adulthood of adolescent drug involvement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 746–754.Google Scholar
  46. Kaplan, H. B., & Liu, X. (1994). A longitudinal analysis of mediating variables in the drug usedropping out relationship. Criminology, 32, 415–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Katz, J., & Jackson-Jacobs, C. (2004). The criminologist’s gang. In C. Summer (Ed.), The Blackwell companion to criminology (pp. 91–124). Malden, MA: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kennedy, D. M., Piehl, A. M., & Braga, A. A. (1996). Youth violence in Boston: Gun markets, serious youth offenders, and a use-reduction strategy. Law and Contemporary Problems, 59, 147–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klein, M. W. (1969). Gang cohesiveness, delinquency, and a street-work program. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 6, 135–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Klein, M. W. (1971). Street gangs and street workers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  51. Klein, M. W., Gordon, M. A., & Maxson, C. A. (1986). The impact of police investigation on police reported rates of gang and non-gang homicides. Criminology, 24, 489–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Klein, M. K., & Maxson, C. L. (2006). Street gang patterns and policies. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Kobrin, S. (1959). The Chicago area project: A twenty-five year assessment. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 322, 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Abbott, R. D., Catalano, R. F., & Guo, J. (1996, November). The developmental dynamics of gang initiation: When and why young people join gangs. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago.Google Scholar
  55. Krohn, M. D., Thornberry, T. P, Collins-Hall, L., & Lizotte, A. J. (1995). School dropout, delinquent behavior, and drug use: An examination of the causes and consequences of dropping out of school. In H. B. Kaplan (Ed.), Drugs, crime, and other deviant adaptations: Longitudinal studies (pp. 163–183). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  56. Krohn, M. D., Thornberry, T. P., Rivera, C., & LeBlanc, M. (2001). Later delinquency careers. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Child delinquents: Development, intervention and service needs (pp. 67–93). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  57. Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Thornberry, T. P., Hall, G. P., & Chu, R. (2006). The effect of gang membership on life-course transitions and early adult outcomes. Los Angeles, CA: Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology.Google Scholar
  58. Lacourse, E., Nagin, D., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., & Claes, M. (2003). Developmental trajectories of boys’ delinquent group membership and facilitation of violent behaviors during adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lahey, B. B., Gordon, R. A., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Boys who join gangs: A prospective study of predictors of first gang entry. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Levitt, S. D., & Venkatesh, S. A. (2001a). An analysis of the long-run consequences of gang involvement. Paper presented at the 2001 Harvard Inequality Summer Institute, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  61. Levitt, S. D., & Venkatesh, S. A. (2001b). Growing up in the projects: The economic lives of a cohort of men who came of age in Chicago public housing. American Economic Review, 91, 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lizotte, A. J., Tesoriero, J. M., Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (1994). Patterns of adolescent firearms ownership and use. Justice Quarterly, 11, 51–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (2001). Child delinquents: Development, intervention and service needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  64. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., White, H. R., Wei, E. H., & Beyers, J. M. (2003). The development of male offending: Key findings from 14 years of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. In T. P. Thornbery & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 93–136). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. Mattick, H., & Caplan, N. S. (1962). Chicago youth development project: The Chicago boys’ club. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute of Social Research.Google Scholar
  66. Maxson, C. L., Whitlock, M. L., & Klein, M. W. (1997). A comparison of the risk factors associated with gang joining, violent behavior, and general delinquency. San Diego, CA: Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology.Google Scholar
  67. Mensch, B. S., & Kandel, D. B. (1988). Dropping out of high school and drug involvement. Sociology of Education, 61, 95–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Miller, W. B. (1958). Lower class culture as a generating milieu of gang delinquency. Journal of Social Issues, 14, 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miller, W. B. (1962). The impact of a “total community” delinquency control project. Social Problems, 10, 168–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Miller, W. B. (1975). Violence by youth gangs and youth groups as a crime problem in major American cities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  71. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). “Life-course-persistent” and “adolescence-limited” antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moore, J. W. (1991). Going down to the barrio: Homeboys and homegirls in change. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Nagin, D. S. (1999). Analyzing developmental trajectories: A semiparametric, group-based approach. Psychological Methods, 4, 139–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nagin, D. S., & Land, K. C. (1993). Age, criminal careers, and population heterogeneity: Specification and estimation of a nonparametric, mixed poisson model. Criminology, 31, 327–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1988). Consequences of adolescent drug use: Impact on the lives of young adults. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  76. Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  77. Patterson, G. R., Capaldi, D., & Ban, L. (1991). An early starter model for predicting delinquency. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 139–168). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  78. Piquero, A. R. (this volume). Taking stock of developmental trajectories of criminal activity over the life course.Google Scholar
  79. Rosenbaum, P. (2002). Observational studies (2nd ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  80. Rosenbaum, P., & Rubin, D. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points though life. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Siennick, S. E., & Osgood, D. W. (this volume). A review of research on the impact on crime of transitions to adult roles.Google Scholar
  83. Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  84. Short, J. F., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1965). Group processes and gang delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  85. Small, S. A., & Luster, T. (1994). Adolescent sexual activity: An ecological, risk-factor approach. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Smith, C. A. (1997). Factors associated with early sexual activity among urban adolescents. Social Work, 42, 334–346.Google Scholar
  87. Thornberry, T. P. (1987). Toward an interactional theory of delinquency. Criminology, 25, 863–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Thornberry, T. P. (1998). Membership in youth gangs and involvement in serious and violent offending. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious & violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 147–166). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  89. Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (2003). Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  90. Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (2005). Applying interactional theory to the explanation of continuity and change in antisocial behavior. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (pp. 183–209). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  91. Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., & Chard-Wierschem, D. (1993). The role of juvenile gangs in facilitating delinquent behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 55–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Smith, C. A., & Tobin, K. (2003). Gangs and delinquency in developmental perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Thornberry, T. P., & Porter, P. K. (2001). Advantages of longitudinal research designs in studying gang behavior. In M. W. Klein, H. J. Kerner, C. Maxson, & E. G. M. Weitekamp (Eds.), The eurogang paradox (pp. 59–77). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  94. Thornberry, T. P., Smith, C. A., & Howard, G. J. (1997). Risk factors for teenage fatherhood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 505–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Thrasher, F. M. (1927). The gang: A study of 1,313 gangs in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  96. Thrasher, F. M. (1936). The boys’ club and juvenile delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 41, 66–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., Nagin, D., Pagani, L., & Seguin, J. R. (2003). The Montreal Longitudinal and Experimental Study: Rediscovering the power of descriptions. In T. P. Thornberry & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 205–254). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  98. Vigil, J. D. (1988). Barrio gangs: Street life and identity in Southern California. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  99. Walker-Barnes, C. J., & Mason, C. A. (2001). Ethnic differences in the effect of parenting on gang involvement and gang delinquency: A longitudinal, hierarchical linear modeling perspective. Child Development, 72, 1814–1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yablonsky, L. (1962). The violent gang. New York, NY: MacMillan Press.Google Scholar
  101. Yarrow, M. R., Campbell J. D., & Burton, R. V. (1970). Recollections of childhood: A study of the retrospective method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 35, 1–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhang, L., Welte, J. W., & Wieczorek, W. F. (1999). Youth gangs, drug use, and delinquency. Journal of Criminal Justice, 27, 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Criminal Justice University at AlbanyAlbany
  2. 2.Institute of Behavioral Science and Department of Sociology University of ColoradoBoulder

Personalised recommendations