• David Rogers
Part of the Springer Studies in Work and Industry book series (SSWI)

In reviewing the New York City experience with mayoral control, one of the most problematic issues has been implementation. Academics interested in managing change have written widely on the subject (see, for example, Pfeffer 1992; Stone et al. 2001; Nye 2004). Their focus, as will be mine here and in the concluding chapter, is how the style of implementation affects leaders’ capacity to put together coalitions needed to sustain the reforms introduced.

Four Implementation Options

I assess Bloomberg and Klein’s leadership in the context of four pairs of implementation choices:
  1. 1.

    Systemic vs. incremental

  2. 2.

    Phased-in rapidly vs. gradually

  3. 3.

    Closed vs. open decision-making

  4. 4.

    Top-down vs. participatory


Making choices on these dimensions involves trade-offs. Maintaining some balance may be the most effective way to get needed change, but there are few precise guidelines for how to proceed. Furthermore, there are compelling arguments in support of each polarized alternative.



York City Management Style Charter School Management Consultant Small School 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag US 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Rogers
    • 1
  1. 1. Emeritus Professor of Management Leonard N. Stern School of Business New York University NewYorkArgentina

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