Advertisement

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

  • Ajay Niranjan
  • Sait Sirin
  • John C. Flickinger
  • Ann Maitz
  • Douglas Kondziolka
  • L. Dade Lunsford

Abstract

Professor Lars Leksell first coupled an orthovoltage X-ray tube with his first-generation guiding device to focus radiation on the Gasserian ganglion to treat facial pain. He subsequently investigated cross-fired protons as well as X-rays from an early-generation linear accelerator (linac) for radiosurgery. In the 1960s, he became dissatisfied with the cumbersome nature of cross-fired proton beams and the poor reliability and wobble of then-existing linear accelerators. Leksell and Larsson finally selected cobalt-60 as the ideal photon radiation source and developed the Gamma Knife [1], [2]. They placed 179 60Co sources in a hemispherical array so that all gamma rays (radiation from the decay of 60Co) focused on a single point thereby creating cumulative radiation isocenters of variable volume depending on the beam diameter. The first Gamma Knife created a discoid-shaped lesion suitable for neurosurgical treatment of movement disorders and intractable pain management.

Keywords

Brain Metastasis Pituitary Adenoma Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Essential Tremor Gamma Knife 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lunsford LD. Lars Leksell. Notes at the side of a raconteur. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1996;67(3–4):153–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ammar A. Lars Leksell’s vision—radiosurgery. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1994;62:1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang JH, Chang JW, Park YG, Chung SS. Factors related to complete occlusion of arteriovenous malformations after gamma knife radiosurgery. J Neurosurg 2000;93(Suppl 3):96–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coffey RJ, Nichols DA, Shaw EG. Stereotactic radiosurgical treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Gamma Unit Radiosurgery Study Group. Mayo Clin Proc 1995;70(3):214–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Flickinger JC, Kondziolka D, Maitz AH, Lunsford LD. An analysis of the dose-response for arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery and other factors affecting obliteration. Radiother Oncol 2002;63(3):347–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kurita H, Kawamoto S, Sasaki T, et al. Results of radiosurgery for brain stem arteriovenous malformations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68(5):563–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maruyama K, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brainstem arteriovenous malformations: factors affecting outcome. J Neurosurg 2004;100(3):407–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pollock BE, Gorman DA, Coffey RJ. Patient outcomes after arteriovenous malformation radiosurgical management: results based on a 5-to 14-year follow-up study. Neurosurgery 2003;52(6):1291–1296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Regis J, Massager N, Levrier O, et al. (Gamma-knife radiosurgery for brainstem arteriovenous malformations. Preliminary results]. Neurochirurgie 2001;47(2–3 Pt 2):291–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Steiner L, Lindquist C, Adler JR, Torner JC, Alves W, Steiner M. Clinical outcome of radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg 1992;77(1):1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Szeifert GT, Major O, Kemeny AA. Ultrastructural changes in arteriovenous malformations after gamma knife surgery: an electron microscopic study. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):289–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shin M, Maruyama K, Kurita H, et al. Analysis of nidus obliteration rates after gamma knife surgery for arteriovenous malformations based on long-term follow-up data: the University of Tokyo experience. J Neurosurg 2004;101(1):18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pollock BE, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD, Maitz A, Kondziolka D. Factors associated with successful arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery. Neurosurgery 1998;42(6):1239–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pollock BE, Kline RW, Stafford SL, Foote RL, Schomberg PJ. The rationale and technique of staged-volume arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;48(3):817–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pollock BE, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD, Bissonette DJ, Kondziolka D. Hemorrhage risk after stereotactic radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery 1996;38(4):652–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Izawa M, Hayashi M, Chernov M, et al. Long-term complications after gamma knife surgery for arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):34–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maesawa S, Flickinger JC, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD. Repeated radiosurgery for incompletely obliterated arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg 2000;92(6):961–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liscak R, Vladyka V, Simonova G, Vymazal J, Novotny J Jr. Gamma knife surgery of brain cavernous hemangiomas. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):207–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hasegawa T, McInerney J, Kondziolka D, Lee JY, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. Long-term results after stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with cavernous malformations. Neurosurgery 2002;50(6):1190–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van Eck AT, Horstmann GA. Increased preservation of functional hearing after gamma knife surgery for vestibular schwannoma. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):204–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Unger F, Walch C, Schrottner O, Eustacchio S, Sutter B, Pendl G. Cranial nerve preservation after radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2002;84:77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prasad D, Steiner M, Steiner L. Gamma surgery for vestibular schwannoma.(see comment]. J Neurosurg 2000;92(5):745–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Noren G. Long-term complications following gamma knife radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1998;70(Suppl 1):65–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Niranjan A, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC, Maitz A, Kondziolka D. Dose reduction improves hearing preservation rates after in — tracanalicular acoustic tumor radiosurgery. Neurosurgery 1999;45(4):753–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nakamura H, Jokura H, Takahashi K, Boku N, Akabane A, Yoshimoto T. Serial follow-up MR imaging after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Ajnr: Am J Neuroradiol 2000;21(8):1540–1546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Muacevic A, Jess-Hempen A, Tonn JC, Wowra B. Results of outpatient gamma knife radiosurgery for primary therapy of acoustic neuromas. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2004;91:75–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lunsford LD, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Maitz A, Kondziolka D. Radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas: summary of experience in 829 cases. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):195–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, McLaughlin MR, Flickinger JC. Long-term outcomes after radiosurgery for acoustic neuromas.[see comment]. N Engl J Med 1998;339(20):1426–1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Flickinger JC, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Maitz A, Voynov G, Lunsford LD. Acoustic neuroma radiosurgery with marginal tumor doses of 12 to 13 Gy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004;60(1):225–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Delbrouck C, Hassid S, Massager N, et al. Preservation of hearing in vestibular schwannomas treated by radiosurgery using Leksell Gamma Knife: preliminary report of a prospective Belgian clinical study. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 2003;57(3):197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gardner G, Robertson JH. Hearing preservation in unilateral acoustic neuroma surgery. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1988;97(1):55–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    House JW, Brackmann DE. Facial nerve grading system. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1985;93(2):146–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Flickinger JC, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Lunsford LD. Results of acoustic neuroma radiosurgery: an analysis of 5 years’ experience using current methods.[see comment]. J Neurosurg 2001;94(1):1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kondziolka D, Nathoo N, Flickinger JC, Niranjan A, Maitz AH, Lunsford LD. Long-term results after radiosurgery for benign intracranial tumors. Neurosurgery 2003;53(4):815–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Subach BR, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Bissonette DJ, Flickinger JC, Maitz AH. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of acoustic neuromas associated with neurofibromatosis Type 2. J Neurosurg 1999;90(5):815–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Subach BR, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Bissonette DJ, Flickinger JC, Maitz AH. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of acoustic neuromas associated with neurofibromatosis Type 2.[see comment]. J Neurosurg 1999;90(5):815–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aichholzer M, Bertalanffy A, Dietrich W, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery of skull base meningiomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2000;142(6):647–652.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chang JH, Chang JW, Choi JY, Park YG, Chung SS. Complications after gamma knife radiosurgery for benign meningiomas. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74(2):226–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DiBiase SJ, Kwok Y, Yovino S, et al. Factors predicting local tumor control after gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for benign intracranial meningiomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004;60(5):1515–1519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eustacchio S, Trummer M, Fuchs I, Schrottner O, Sutter B, Pendl G. Preservation of cranial nerve function following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for benign skull base meningiomas: experience in 121 patients with follow-up of 5 to 9.8 years. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2002;84:71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Feigl GC, Bundschuh O, Gharabaghi A, Samii M, Horstmann GA. Volume reduction in meningiomas after gamma knife surgery. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):189–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Flickinger JC, Kondziolka D, Maitz AH, Lunsford LD. Gamma knife radiosurgery of imaging-diagnosed intracranial meningioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;56(3):801–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Huffmann BC, Reinacher PC, Gilsbach JM. Gamma knife surgery for atypical meningiomas. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):283–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Iwai Y, Yamanaka K, Ishiguro T. Gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of cavernous sinus meningiomas. Neurosurgery 2003;52(3):517–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kim DG, Kim Ch H, Chung HT, et al. Gamma knife surgery of superficially located meningioma. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):255–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kobayashi T, Kida Y, Mori Y. Long-term results of stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of meningiomas. Surg Neurol 2001;55(6):325–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Perez B. Judicious resection and/or radiosurgery for parasagittal meningiomas: outcomes from a multicenter review. Gamma Knife Meningioma Study Group. Neurosurgery 1998;43(3):405–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kondziolka D, Levy EI, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. Long-term outcomes after meningioma radiosurgery: physician and patient perspectives. J Neurosurg 1999;91(1):44–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lee JY, Niranjan A, McInerney J, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. Stereotactic radiosurgery providing long-term tumor control of cavernous sinus meningiomas. J Neurosurg 2002;97(1):65–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liscak R, Simonova G, Vymazal J, Janouskova L, Vladyka V. Gamma knife radiosurgery of meningiomas in the cavernous sinus region. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1999;141(5):473–480.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Morita A, Coffey RJ, Foote RL, Schiff D, Gorman D. Risk of injury to cranial nerves after gamma knife radiosurgery for skull base meningiomas: experience in 88 patients. J Neurosurg 1999;90(1):42–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Muthukumar N, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC. Stereotactic radiosurgery for tentorial meningiomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998;140(4):315–320;discussion 20–21.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nicolato A, Foroni R, Alessandrini F, Maluta S, Bricolo A, Gerosa M. The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the management of cavernous sinus meningiomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;53(4):992–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nicolato A, Foroni R, Alessandrini F, Bricolo A, Gerosa M. Radiosurgical treatment of cavernous sinus meningiomas: experience with 122 treated patients. Neurosurgery 2002;51(5):1153–1159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pan DH, Guo WY, Chang YC, et al. The effectiveness and factors related to treatment results of gamma knife radiosurgery for meningiomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1998;70(Suppl 1):19–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pendl G, Schrottner O, Eustacchio S, Feichtinger K, Ganz J. Stereotactic radiosurgery of skull base meningiomas. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 1997;40(3):87–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pendl G, Eustacchio S, Unger F. Radiosurgery as alternative treatment for skull base meningiomas. J Clin Neurosci 2001;8(Suppl 1):12–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Roche PH, Pellet W, Fuentes S, Thomassin JM, Regis J. Gamma knife radiosurgical management of petroclival meningiomas results and indications. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2003;145(10):883–888.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sheehan JP, Kondziolka D, Flickinger J, Lunsford LD. Radiosurgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. Neurosurg Focus 2003;14(5):1–9.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pollock BE, Nippoldt TB, Stafford SL, Foote RL, Abboud CF. Results of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with hormone-producing pituitary adenomas: factors associated with endocrine normalization. J Neurosurg 2002;97(3):525–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Landolt AM, Lomax N. Gamma knife radiosurgery for prolactinomas. J Neurosurg 2000;93(Suppl 3):14–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Attanasio R, Epaminonda P, Motti E, et al. Gamma-knife radiosurgery in acromegaly: a 4-year follow-up study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88(7):3105–3112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Castinetti F, Taieb D, Kuhn JM, et al. Outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery in 82 patients with acromegaly: correlation with initial hypersecretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90(8):4483–4488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gutt B, Wowra B, Alexandrov R, et al. Gamma-knife surgery is effective in normalising plasma insulin-like growth factor I in patients with acromegaly. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2005;113(4):219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Niranjan A, Szeifert G, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Maitz A, Lunsford LD, eds. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. Basal: Karger, 2002.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jane JA Jr, Vance ML, Woodburn CJ, Laws ER Jr. Stereotactic radiosurgery for Hypersecreting pituitary tumors: part of multimodality approach. Neurosurgery Focus 2003;14(14):1–5.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Laws ER Jr, Vance ML. Radiosurgery for pituitary tumors and craniopharyngiomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1999;10(2):327–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rahn T, Thoren M, Hall K, Backlund EO. Stereotactic radiosurgery in Cushing’s syndrome: acute radiation effects. Surg Neurol 1980;14(2):85–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sheehan JM, Vance ML, Sheehan JP, Ellegala DB, Laws ER Jr. Radiosurgery for Cushing’s disease after failed transsphenoidal surgery. J Neurosurg 2000;93(5):738–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kobayashi T, Kida Y, Mori Y. Gamma knife radiosurgery in the treatment of Cushing disease: long-term results. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5 Suppl):422–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pollock BE, Young WF Jr. Stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas after prior adrenalectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;54(3):839–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Vladyka V, Liscak R, Novotny J Jr, Marek J, Jezkova J. Radiation tolerance of functioning pituitary tissue in gamma knife surgery for pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery 2003;52(2):309–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Landolt AM, Haller D, Lomax N, et al. Octreotide may act as a radioprotective agent in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(3):1287–1289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Larson DA, Gutin PH, McDermott M, et al. Gamma knife for glioma: selection factors and survival. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996;36(5):1045–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nwokedi EC, DiBiase SJ, Jabbour S, Herman J, Amin P, Chin LS. Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurgery 2002;50(1):41–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Simonova G, Novotny J Jr, Liscak R. Low-grade gliomas treated by fractionated gamma knife surgery. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kida Y, Kobayashi T, Mori Y. Gamma knife radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas: results of long-term follow up. J Neurosurg 2000;93(Suppl 3):42–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hadjipanayis CG, Kondziolka D, Gardner P, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas when multimodal therapy is necessary. J Neurosurg 2002;97(1):56–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hadjipanayis CG, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurg Focus 2003;14(5):1–15.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hadjipanayis CG, Niranjan A, Tyler-Kabara E, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. Stereotactic radiosurgery for well-circumscribed fibrillary grade II astrocytomas: an initial experience. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2002;79(1):13–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Amendola BE, Wolf AL, Coy SR, Amendola M, Bloch L. Gamma knife radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with single and multiple brain metastases from carcinoma of the breast. Cancer J 2000;6(2):88–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gerosa M, Nicolato A, Foroni R, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for brain metastases: a primary therapeutic option. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5 Suppl):515–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gerosa M, Nicolato A, Foroni R, Tomazzoli L, Bricolo A. Analysis of long-term outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases treated by gamma knife radiosurgery. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hasegawa T, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Germanwala A, Lunsford LD. Brain metastases treated with radiosurgery alone: an alternative to whole brain radiotherapy? Neurosurgery 2003;52(6):1318–1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hoffman R, Sneed PK, McDermott MW, et al. Radiosurgery for brain metastases from primary lung carcinoma. Cancer J 2001;7(2):121–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lippitz BE, Kraepelien T, Hautanen K, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for patients with multiple cerebral metastases. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2004;91:79–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nam TK, Lee JI, Jung YJ, et al. Gamma knife surgery for brain metastases in patients harboring four or more lesions: survival and prognostic factors. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):147–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pan HC, Sheehan J, Stroila M, Steiner M, Steiner L. Gamma knife surgery for brain metastases from lung cancer. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):128–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Petrovich Z, Yu C, Giannotta SL, O’Day S, Apuzzo ML. Survival and pattern of failure in brain metastasis treated with stereotactic gamma knife radiosurgery. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5 Suppl):499–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Serizawa T, Saeki N, Higuchi Y, et al. Gamma knife surgery for brain metastases: indications for and limitations of a local treatment protocol. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2005;147(7):721–726.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sheehan JP, Sun MH, Kondziolka D, Flickinger J, Lunsford LD. Radiosurgery for non-small cell lung carcinoma metastatic to the brain: long-term outcomes and prognostic factors influencing patient survival time and local tumor control. J Neurosurg 2002;97(6):1276–1281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Simonova G, Liscak R, Novotny J Jr, Novotny J. Solitary brain metastases treated with the Leksell gamma knife: prognostic factors for patients. Radiother Oncol 2000;57(2):207–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shiau CY, Sneed PK, Shu HK, et al. Radiosurgery for brain metastases: relationship of dose and pattern of enhancement to local control. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;37(2):375–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rutigliano MJ, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Strauss MJ, Khanna V, Green M. The cost effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery versus surgical resection in the treatment of solitary metastatic brain tumors. Neurosurgery 1995;37(3):445–453;discussion 53–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Reyns N, Hayashi M, Chinot O, et al. The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the treatment of pineal parenchymal tumours. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2006;148(1):5–11.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kobayashi T, Kida Y, Mori Y. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors. J Neurooncol 2001;54(3):301–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Miller RC, Foote RL, Coffey RJ, et al. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of malignant skull base tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;39(5):977–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Muthukumar N, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC. Stereotactic radiosurgery for chordoma and chondrosarcoma: further experiences. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998;41(2):387–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nettel B, Niranjan A, Martin JJ, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal schwannomas. Surg Neurol 2004;62(5):435–444;discussion 44–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pan L, Wang EM, Zhang N, et al. Long-term results of Leksell gamma knife surgery for trigeminal schwannomas. J Neurosurg 2005;102(Suppl):220–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Pollock BE, Foote RL, Stafford SL. Stereotactic radiosurgery: the preferred management for patients with nonvestibular schwannomas? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;52(4):1002–1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Saringer W, Khayal H, Ertl A, Schoeggl A, Kitz K. Efficiency of gamma knife radiosurgery in the treatment of glomus jugulare tumors. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2001;44(3):141–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zhang N, Pan L, Dai JZ, Wang BJ, Wang EM, Cai PW. Gamma knife radiosurgery for jugular foramen schwannomas. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5 Suppl):456–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Muthukumar N, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC. Stereotactic radiosurgery for jugular foramen schwannomas. Surg Neurol 1999;52(2):172–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chiou SM, Lunsford LD, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC. Stereotactic radiosurgery of residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma, after surgery, with or without radiation therapy. Neuro-Oncology 2001;3(3):159–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hasegawa T, Kondziolka D, Hadjipanayis CG, Lunsford LD. Management of cystic craniopharyngiomas with phosphorus-32 intracavitary irradiation. Neurosurgery 2004;54(4):813–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chung WY, Pan DH, Shiau CY, Guo WY, Wang LW. Gamma knife radiosurgery for craniopharyngiomas. J Neurosurg 2000;93(Suppl 3):47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Amendola BE, Wolf A, Coy SR, Amendola MA. Role of radiosurgery in craniopharyngiomas: a preliminary report. Med Pediatr Oncol 2003;41(2):123–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ulfarsson E, Lindquist C, Roberts M, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for craniopharyngiomas: long-term results in the first Swedish patients. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5 Suppl):613–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pollock BE. Stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with glomus jugulare tumors. Neurosurg Focus 2004;17(1–3):E10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Thompson TP, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC. Radiosurgery for hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus and orbit: technical case report. Neurosurgery 2000;47(3):778–783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Peker S, Kilic T, Sengoz M, Pamir MN. Radiosurgical treatment of cavernous sinus cavernous haemangiomas. Acta Neurochir 2004;146(4):337–341.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nakamura N, Shin M, Tago M, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for cavernous hemangiomas in the cavernous sinus. Report of three cases. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5 Suppl):477–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kida Y, Kobayashi T, Mori Y. Radiosurgery of cavernous hemangiomas in the cavernous sinus. Surg Neurol 2001;56(2):117–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Georg AE, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Maitz A. Hemangioblastoma of the posterior fossa. The role of multimodality treatment. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 1997;55(2):278–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pan L, Wang EM, Wang BJ, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for hemangioblastomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1998;70(Suppl 1):179–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jawahar A, Kondziolka D, Garces YI, Flickinger JC, Pollock BE, Lunsford LD. Stereotactic radiosurgery for hemangioblastomas of the brain. Acta Neurochir 2000;142(6):641–644.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC. The role of radiosurgery in the management of chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the cranial base. Neurosurgery 1991;29(1):38–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD. Stereotactic radiosurgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Laryngoscope 1991;101(5):519–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Firlik KS, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Janecka IP, Flickinger JC. Radiosurgery for recurrent cranial base cancer arising from the head and neck. Head & Neck 1996;18(2):160–165.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lee N, Millender LE, Larson DA, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for recurrent salivary gland malignancies involving the base of skull. Head & Neck 2003;25(3):210–216.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Maesawa S, Salame C, Flickinger JC, Pirris S, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD. Clinical outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 2001;94(1):14–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hasegawa T, Kondziolka D, Spiro R, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. Repeat radiosurgery for refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2002;50(3):494–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Baser S, Heyman R, Lunsford LD. Functional outcomes after gamma knife thalamotomy for essential tremor and MS-related tremor. Neurology 2000;55(3):443–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Duma CM. Movement Disorder Radiosurgery. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Inc., 2003.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ohye C, Shibazaki T, Ishihara J, Zhang J. Evaluation of gamma thalamotomy for parkinsonian and other tremors: survival of neurons adjacent to the thalamic lesion after gamma thalamotomy. J Neurosurg 2000;93(Suppl 3):120–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ohye C, Shibazaki T, Zhang J, Andou Y. Thalamic lesions produced by gamma thalamotomy for movement disorders. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5 Suppl):600–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Young RF. Gamma knife radiosurgery as an alternative form of therapy for movement disorders. Arch Neurol 2002;59(10):1660–1662;author reply 2–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Okun MS, Stover NP, Subramanian T, et al. Complications of gamma knife surgery for Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2001;58(12):1995–2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Friedman DP, Goldman HW, Flanders AE, Gollomp SM, Curran WJ Jr. Stereotactic radiosurgical pallidotomy and thalamotomy with the gamma knife: MR imaging findings with clinical correlation-preliminary experience. Radiology 1999;212(1):143–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Friehs GM, Ojakangas CL, Schrottner O, Ott E, Pendl G. Radiosurgical lesioning of the caudate nucleus as a treatment for parkinsonism: a preliminary report. Neurol Res 1997;19(1):97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Keep MF, Mastrofrancesco L, Erdman D, Murphy B, Ashby LS. Gamma knife subthalamotomy for Parkinson disease: the subthalamic nucleus as a new radiosurgical target. Case report. J Neurosurg 2002;97(5 Suppl):592–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajay Niranjan
    • 1
  • Sait Sirin
    • 2
  • John C. Flickinger
    • 2
  • Ann Maitz
    • 2
  • Douglas Kondziolka
    • 1
  • L. Dade Lunsford
    • 2
  1. 1.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations