Movement Disorder: Medical Perspective
Movement disorders encompasses a wide range of neurologic diseases and syndromes that can be characterized by whether or not the motor manifestations are primarily hypokinetic or hyperkinetic. The hypokinetic disorders include such common syndromes as parkinsonism including Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and various other syndromes that clinically manifest bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, and gait impairment. The hyperkinetic disorders characterize a wide range of syndromes and diseases including Huntington disease, dystonia, Tourette syndrome, essential tremor, myoclonus, and tardive dyskinesia. Each of the hyperkinetic syndromes clinically manifests either as tremor, chorea, tics, myoclonus, or dystonia. Clinical descriptions of these disorders can be found in a wide variety of references , . This chapter will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of radiosurgery versus medical treatment of movement disorders. Radiosurgery has been used most extensively to treat Parkinson disease and essential tremor. The chapter will define the clinical syndromes of Parkinson disease and essential tremor, discuss the medical therapy that is available, and finally discuss the advantages and disadvantages of radiosurgery in these two disorders.
KeywordsDeep Brain Stimulation Movement Disorder Parkinson Disease Multiple System Atrophy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
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