The tasks associated with entering and negotiating adulthood, including identity development, are daunting. Emerging and young adults in an industrialized society such as the United States face a global environment that is fast-paced, increasingly complex, demanding, and ever-changing. The future is uncertain, and for some, replete with choices and possibilities. Rules are less clear and more contextual, and there is less institutional guidance pointing to clear developmental pathways. Hence, there is a need for greater individual maneuvering that requires a strategic approach in planning a life course (Cote, 2000; Moses, 1998).


Young Adulthood Identity Formation Identity Development Borderline Personality Disorder Communist Regime 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bauer, J. & McAdams, D. (2004). Personal growth in adults’ stories of life transitions. Journal of Personality, 72, 573–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belsky, J. (n.d.). Constructing an adult life. Retrieved August 3, 2005 from http://wwwuncwil.edu/gc/pdf/BELSKY_chapter_11pdf#search=’belsky%20emerging%20adult.Google Scholar
  3. Cohen, P., Kasen, S., Chen, H., Hartmark, C., Gordon, K. (2003). Variations in patterns of developmental transitions in the emerging adulthood period. Developmental Psychology, 39, 657–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Constantine, M. G. (2002). The intersection of race, ethnicity, gender and social class in counseling: Examining selves in cultural contexts. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30, 210–215.Google Scholar
  5. Cote, J. (2000). Arrested adulthood: The changing nature of maturity and identity—What does it mean to grow up? New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Harrison, J. (l995). Roles, identities and sexual orientation: Homosexuality, heterosexuality, and bisexuality. In R. F. Levant & W. S. Pollack (Eds.), A New Psychology of Men (pp. 359–382). New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  7. Hays, P. (2002) Addressing cultural complexities in practice: A framework for clinicians and counsellors. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  8. hooks, b. (1996). Born African American: Memoirs of childhood. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  9. Josselson, R. (1996). Revising herself: The story of women’s identity from college to midlife. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Kroeger, J. (2000). Identity development. Adolescence through adulthood. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Lipford, J., & Bradley, C. (2005). Multiple-lens paradigm: Evaluating African American girls and their development. Journal of Counseling and Development. 83, 299–304.Google Scholar
  12. Montgomery, M. J. (2005). Psychosocial intimacy and identity: From early adolescence to emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 346–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moses, B. (1998). Career intelligence: The 12 new rules for work and life success. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  14. Phan, L. T, Torres Rivera, E., & Roberts-Wilbur, J. (2005). Understanding Vietnamese refugee women’s identity development from a sociopolitical and historical perspective. Journal of Counseling and Development, 83, 305–312.Google Scholar
  15. Phinney, J. (2006). Ethnic identity exploration in emerging adulthood. In J. Arnett & J. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 25–36). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  16. Schwartz, S. J., Cote, J. E., & Arnett, J. J. (2005). Identity and agency in emerging adulthood: Two developmental routes in the individualization process. Youth and Society, 37(2), 201–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shulman, S., Feldman, B., Blatt, S. J., Cohen, O., & Mahler, A. (2005). Emerging adulthood: Age-related tasks and underlying self processes. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 577–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sue, D., Pharam, T., & Santiago, G. (1998). The changing face of work in the United States: Implications for individual, institutional, and societal survival. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 4, 153–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tanner, J. (2006). Emerging adulthood, a critical period of life span human development. In J. Arnett & J. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 1–3). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  20. Waterman, A. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Williams, C. (2005). Counseling African American women: Multiple identities-Multiple constraints. Journal of Counseling and Development, 83, 278–283.Google Scholar
  22. Zunker, H. (2006). Career counseling: A holistic approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Personalised recommendations