Advertisement

Legionella in the Environment

  • Barry S. Fields
Part of the Infectious Diseases And Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Keywords

Cooling Tower Municipal Water Supply Pinellas County Pontiac Fever Biocide Efficacy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adeleke A, Pruckler J, Benson R, Rowbotham T, Halablab M, Fields B (1996) Legionella like amebal pathogens—phylogenetic status and possible role in respiratory disease. Emerg Infect Dis 2:225–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous (1985) Stress organisms. In: Franson MAH, Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Trussell RR, (eds.) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 16th edition. American Public Health Association. Washington, DC. pp. 1036–1038.Google Scholar
  3. Arnow PM, Weil D, Para MF (1985) Prevalence and significance of Legionella pneumophila contamination of residential hot-tap water systems. J Infect Dis 152:145–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbaree JM, Sanchez A, Sanden GN (1983) Tolerance of Legionella species to sodium chloride. Curr Microbiol 9:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbaree JM, Fields BS, Feeley JC, Gorman GW, Martin WT (1986) Isolation of protozoa from water associated with a legionellosis outbreak and demonstration of intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:422–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooks T, Osicki RA, Springthrorpe VS, Sattar SA, Filion L, Abrial D, Riffard S (2004) Detection and identification of Legionella species from ground waters. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part A 67:1845–1859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000) Legionnaires’ Disease associated with potting soil—California, Oregon, and Washington, May–June 2000. MMWR 49(34):777–778.Google Scholar
  8. Costas J, Tiago I, da Costa MS, Verissiom A. (2005) Presence and persistence of Legionella spp in groundwater. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:663–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Donlan RM, Forster T, Murga R, Brown E, Lucas C, Carpenter J, Fields B (2005) Legionella pneumophila associated with the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis in a model multi-species biofilm has reduced susceptibility to disinfectants. Biofouling 21: 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fields BS (1996) The molecular ecology of Legionellae. Trends Microbiol 4:286–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE (2002) Legionella and Legionnaires’ Disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin Microbiol Rev 15:506–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Flannery B, Gelling LB, Vugia DJ, Weintraub JM, Salerno JJ, Conroy MJ, Stevens VA, Rose CE, Moore MR, Fields BS, and Besser RE (2006) Reduced Legionella after monochloramine disinfection. Emerg Infect Dis. 12:588–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fliermans CB, Cherry WB, Orrison LH, Smith SJ, Tison DL, Pope DH (1981) Ecological distribution of Legionella pneumophila. Appl Environ Microbiol 41:9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Green PN, Pirrie RS (1993) A laboratory apparatus for the generation and biocide efficacy testing of Legionella biofilms. J Appl Bacteriol 74:388–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hägele S, Kohler R, Merkert H, Schleicher M, Hacker J, Steinert M (2000) Dictyostelium discoideum: a new host model system for intracellular pathogens of the genus Legionella. Cell Microbiol 2:165–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heffelfinger JD, Kool JL, Fridkin SK, Fraser VJ, Hageman J, Carpenter, J, Whitney CG; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (2000) Risk of hospital-acquired legionnaires’ disease in cities using monochloramine versus other water disinfectants. Infect Control Hops Epidemiol 24:569–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Horwitz MA, Silverstein SC (1980) The legionnaires’ disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) multiplies intracellularly in human monocytes. J Clin Inves 66: 441–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Joly JR (1993) Monitoring for the presence of Legionella: where, when, and how? In: Barbaree JM, Breiman RF, Dufour AP (eds.). Legionella: Current status and emerging perspectives. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp. 211–216.Google Scholar
  19. Katz SM, Hammel, JM (1987) The effect of drying, heat, and pH on the survival of Legionella pneumophila. Ann Clin Lab Sci 17:150–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kool JL, Carpenter JC, Fields BS (1999) Effect of monochloramine disinfection of municipal drinking water on risk of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease. Lancet 353:272–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kusnetsov JM, Keskitalo PJ, Ahonen HE, Tulkki AI, Miettinen IT, Martikanen PJ (1994) Growth of Legionella and other heterotrophic bacteria in a circulating cooling water system exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. J Appl Bacteriol 77:461–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lederberg J, Shoppe RE, Oaks SCJr.(eds.). (1992) Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to health in the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee JV, West AA (1991) Survival and growth of Legionella species in the environment. J Appl Bacteriol Symp Supp 70:121–129.Google Scholar
  24. Mahbubani MH, Bej AK, Miller R, Haff L, DiCesare J, Atlas RM (1990) Detection of Legionella pneumophila with polymerase chain reaction and gene probe methods. Mol Cell Probes 4:175–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mermel LA, Joesephson SL, Giorgio CH, Dempsey J, Parenteau S (1995) Association of Legionnaires’ disease with construction: contamination of potable water? Infect Contr Hosp Epidemiol 16:76–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miller LA, Beebe JL, Butler JC, Martin WT, Benson R, Hoffman RE, Fields BS (1993) Use of polymerase chain reaction in an epidemic investigation of Pontiac fever. J Infect Dis 168:769–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Moore MR, Pryor M, Fields B, Lucas C, Phelan M, Besser Re (2006) Introduction of monochloramine into a municipal water system: impact on colonization of buildings by Legionella. Appl Environ Microbiol. 72:373–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Murga R, Forster TS, Brown E, Pruckler JM, Fields BS, Donlan RM (2001) The role of biofilms in the survival of Legionella pneumophila in a model potable water system. Microbiology 147:3121–3126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ohno A, Kato N, Yamada K, Yamaguchi K (2003) Factors influencing survival of Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 in hot spring water and tap water. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2540–2547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ortiz-Roque CM, Hazen TC (1987) Abundance and distribution of Legionellaceae in Puerto Rican waters. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:2231–2236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Palmer CJ, Tsai YL, Paszko-Kolva C, Sangermano LR (1993) Detection of Legionella species in sewage and ocean water by polymerase chain reaction, direct fluorescent-antibody, and plate culture methods. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3618–3624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rogers J, Keevil CW. 1992. Immunogold and fluorescein immunolabelling of Legionella pneumophila within an aquatic biofilm visualized by using episcopic differential interference contrast microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:2326–2330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Rogers JA, Dowsett B, Dennis PJ, Lee JV, Keevil CW (1994) Influence of temperature and plumbing material selection on biofilm formation and growth of Legionella pneumophila in a model potable water system containing complex microbial flora. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:1585–1592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Rowbotham TJ (1980) Preliminary report on the pathogenicity of Legionella pneumophila for freshwater and soil amoebae. J Clin Pathol 33:1179–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rowbotham TJ (1993) Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. In: Barbaree JM, Breiman RF, Dufour AP (eds.). Legionella: Current status and emerging perspectives. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC pp. 137–140.Google Scholar
  36. Ruehlemann SA, Crawford GR (1996) Panic in the potting shed: The association between Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 and potting soils in Australia. Med J Aust 164:36–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sheehan KB, Henson JM, Ferris MJ. (2005) Legionella species diversity in an acidic biofilm community in Yellowstone National Park. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:507–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Solomon JM, Isberg RR (2000) Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Dictyostelium discoideum: a novel system for genetic analysis of host-pathogen interactions. Trends Microbiol 8:478–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Starnbach MN, Falkow S, Tompkins LS (1989) Species-specific detection of Legionella pneumophila in water by DNA amplification and hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 27:1257–1261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Steele TW (1989) Legionnaires’ disease in South Australia, 1979–1988. Med J Aust 151:322, 325–326, 328.Google Scholar
  41. Steinert M, Emody L, Amann R, Hacker J (1997) Resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Legionella pneumophila JR32 by Acanthamoeba castellanii. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:2047–2053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Storey MV, Langmark J, Ashbolt NJ, Stenstrom TA (2004) The fate of legionellae within distribution pipe biofilms: Measurement of their persistence, inactivation, and detachment. Water Sci Tech 49:269–275.Google Scholar
  43. Tison DL, Baros JA, Seidler RJ (1983) Legionella in aquatic habitats in the mount Saint Helens blast zone. Curr Microbiol 9:345–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Van der Kooij D, Veenendaal HR, Scheffer WJH (2005) Biofilm formation and multiplication of Legionella in a model warm water system with pipes of copper, stainless steel and cross-linked polyethylene. Water Res 39:2789–2798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Verissimo A, Marrao G, Gomes da Silva F, da Costa MS (1991) Distribution of Legionella spp. in hydrothermal areas in continental Portugal and the island of Sao Miguel, Azores. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2921–2927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Yanez MA, Carrasco-Serrano C, Barbera VM, Catalan V (2005) Quantitative detection of Legionella pneumophila in water samples by immunomagnetic purification and real-time PCR amplification of the dotA gene. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3433–3441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry S. Fields

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations