Advertisement

Fighting Antimicrobial Resistance in the Mediterranean Region

  • Michael A. Borg

Abstract

The Mediterranean is a heterogeneous region composed of 20 countries which vary substantially in terms of size, population, and culture. More importantly, the individual nations differ substantially in their socioeconomic development varying by a factor of 7.7 from the country with the highest GDP per capita (France, $29,900) and the one with the lowest (Egypt, $3900) (CIA World Fact Book, 2005)

Keywords

Infection Control Antimicrobial Resistance Antimicrob Agent Mediterranean Country Antibiotic Consumption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antibiotic Resistance and Control in the Mediterranean Region (ARMed) (cited 27 May 2006) Available at http://www.slh.gov.mt/armed
  2. ARPAC Consensus Conference (cited 27 May 2006) Available at http://www.abdn.ac.uk/arpac
  3. Borg MA, Scicluna EA (2002) Over-the-counter acquisition of antimicrobial drugs in the Maltese general population. Int J Antimicrob Agents 20:253–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Borg MA, Cookson BD, Scicluna EA, ARMed Project Steering Group and Collaborators (2005) National infection control initiatives within countries of the southern and eastern Mediterranean. J Hosp Infect 60:182–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Borg M, Scicluna E, De Kraker M, et al (2006) Antibiotic resistance in the southeastern Mediterranean—Preliminary results from the ARMed project. Eur Surveill 11:164–7Google Scholar
  6. Bouchillon SK, Johnson BM, Hoban DJ, et al (2004) Determining incidence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 38 centers from 17 countries: The PEARLS study 2001–2002. Int J Antimicrob Agents 24:119–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bronzwaer SLAM (2003) Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptibility data in Europe, in Bronzwaer SLAM. European antimicrobial resistance surveillance as part of a Community strategy. Amersfoort, pp 51–76.Google Scholar
  8. Bronzwaer SL, Cars O, Buchholz U, et al (2002) A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 8:278–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brusaferro S, Quattrin R, Barbone F, et al (2003) Factors influencing hospital infection control policies in Italian hospitals. J Hosp Infect 53:268–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Calalcante MD, Braga OB, Teofilo CH, et al (1991) Cost improvements through the establishment of prudent infection control practices in a Brazilian general hospital, 1986–1989. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 12:649–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Central Intelligence Agency. World Fact Book (cited 27 May 2006) Available at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html
  12. Crowcroft NS, Ronveaux O, Monnet DL, Mertens R (1999) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial use in Belgian hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 20:31–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. de Gentile A, Rivas N, Sinkowitz-Cochran RL, et al (2001) Nosocomial infections in a children’s hospital in Argentina: Impact of a unique infection control intervention program. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 22:722–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. EARSS Annual Report 2004 (cited 27 May 2006) Available at http://www.rivm.nl/earss
  15. El Kholy A, Baseem H, Hall GS, et al (2003) Antimicrobial resistance in Cairo, Egypt 1999–2000: A survey of five hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother 51: 625–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. European Commission (2005) Detailed analysis of Member States’ reports on the implementation of the Council recommendation (2002/77/EC) on the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in human medicine (cited 27 May 2006) Available at http://europa.eu.int/eurlex/lex/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2005/com2005_0684en01.pdf
  17. Felmingham D, Grüneberg RN, and the Alexander Project Group (1996) A multicentre collaborative study of the antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired lower respiratory tract pathogens 1992–1993. J Antimicrob Chemother 30 (Suppl A): 1–57.Google Scholar
  18. Fluit AC, Jones ME, Schmitz FJ, et al (2000) Antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates in Europe: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program 1997. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 77:147–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Formoso G, Liberati A, Magrini N (2001) Practice guidelines: Useful and “participative” method? Survey of Italian physicians by professional setting. Arch Intern Med 161:2037–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gikas A, Roumbelaki M, Pediaditis J, et al (2004) Prevalence of nosocomial infections after surgery in Greek hospitals: Results of two nationwide surveys. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25:319–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Goossens H, Ferech M, Vander Stichele R, et al (2005) Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: A cross-national database study. Lancet 365:579–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Grigoryan L, Haaijer-Rysjamp FM, Burgerhof JG, et al (2006) Self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 12:452–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gür D, Unal S (2001) Resistance to antimicrobial agents in Mediterranean countries. Int J Antimicrob Agents 17: 21–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Jones RN, Pfaller MA, the MYSTIC Study Group (Europe) (2003) Antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. with resistance phenotypes consistent with an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 9:708–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. McGowan JE Jr (1983) Antimicrobial resistance in hospital organisms and its relation to antibiotic use. Rev Infect Dis 5:1033–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Meers PD (1988) Infection control in developing countries. J Hosp Infect 11:406–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mitsi G, Jelastopulu E, Basiaris H, Skoutelis A, Gogos C (2005) Patterns of antibiotic use among adults and parents in the community: A questionnaire-based survey in a Greek urban population. Int J Antimicrob Agents 25:439–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Monnet DL (2000) Toward multinational antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems in Europe. Int J Antimicrob Agents 15:91–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Moro ML, Petrosillo N, Gandin C (2003) Antibiotic policies in Italian hospitals: Still a lot to achieve. Microb Drug Resist 9:219–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Orero A, Gonzales J, Prieto J (1997) Antibiotics in Spanish households. Medical and socioeconomic implications. URANO Study Group [article in Spanish]. Med Clin (Barc) 109:782–5.Google Scholar
  31. Paterson DL (2006) The role of antimicrobial management programs in optimizing antibiotic prescribing within hospitals. Clin Infect Dis 42:S90–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Richet HM, Benbachir M, Brown DFJ, et al (2003) Are there regional variations in the diagnosis, surveillance and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24: 334–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Rodriguez-Baño J, Pascual A (2001) Hospital infection control in Spain. J Hosp Infect 48:258–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Scheckler WE, Brimhall D, Buck AS, et al (1998) Requirements for infrastructure and activities of infection control and epidemiology in hospitals: A consensus report. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 19:91–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schito GC, Debbia EA, Marchese A (2000) The evolving threat of antibiotic resistance in Europe: New data from the Alexander Project. J Antimicrob Chemother 46 Suppl T1:3–9.Google Scholar
  36. Sobayo EI (1991) Nursing aspects of infection control in developing countries. J Hosp Infect 18:388–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Taker AR (1997) Report on an Expert Meeting on Health and Social Welfare in the Euro-Mediterranean region. European Commission. The Hague, 1–46.Google Scholar
  38. Vaananen MH, Pietila K, Airaksinen M (2006) Self-medication with antibiotics—Does it really happen in Europe? Health Policy 77: 166–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Borg
    • 1
  1. 1.ARMed ProjectSt. Luke’s HospitalGuardamangiaMalta

Personalised recommendations