Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia: Diagnostic and Treatment Options

  • Marìa V. Torres
  • Patricia Mu≁oz
  • Emilio Bouza


Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality despite advances in antimicrobial therapy, better supportive care modalities, and the use of a wide range of preventive measures (Craven et al. 1986, ATS 1996, Niederman 1996).


Respir Crit Nosocomial Pneumonia Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score Endotracheal Aspirate Protected Specimen Brush 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marìa V. Torres
    • 1
  • Patricia Mu≁oz
    • 1
  • Emilio Bouza
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious DiseasesHospital General, Universitario Gregorio Mara≁ón, Universidad ComplutenseMadridSpain

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