Making Causal Inferences About Macrosocial Factors as a Basis for Public Health Policies

  • Jay S. Kaufman


Causal Effect Summary Measure Potential Outcome Outcome Distribution Causal Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmad, S. (2004). Increasing excise taxes on cigarettes in California: A dynamic simulation of health and economic impacts. Preventive Medicine, 41(1), 276–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertrand, M., & Mullainathan, S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review, 94(4), 991–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chou, S. Y., Grossman, M., & Saffer, H. (2004). An economic analysis of adult obesity: Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Journal of Health Economics, 23(3), 565–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elo, I. T., & Preston, S.H. (1996). Educational differentials in mortality: United States, 1979–85. Social Science & Medicine, 42(1), 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Evans, R. J. (1987). Death in Hamburg: Society and politics in the cholera years, 1830–1910. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Garnett, G. P. (2005). Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 191(Supplement 1), S97–S106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Graham, J. D., Thompson, K., Goldie, S., Segui-Gomez, M., & Weinstein, M. C. (1997). The cost-effectiveness of airbags by seating position. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 1418–1425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Greenland, S. (2005). Epidemiologic measures and policy formulation: Lessons from potential outcomes. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 2(5).Google Scholar
  9. Greenland, S., & Brumback, B. (2002). An overview of relations among causal modeling methods. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 1030–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Greenland, S., & Morgenstern, H. (2001). Confounding in health research. Annual Review of Public Health, 22, 189–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenland, S., Robins, J. M., & Pearl, J. (1999). Confounding and collapsibility in causal inference. Statistical Science, 14, 29–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gruber, J., Sen, A., & Stabile, M. (2003). Estimating price elasticities when there is smuggling: The sensitivity of smoking to price in Canada. Journal of Health Economics, 22(5), 821–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gwatkin, D. R. (1997). Global burden of disease. Lancet, 350(9071), 141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halloran, M. E., & Struchiner, C. J. (1995). Causal inference in infectious diseases. Epidemiology, 6(2), 142–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hernan, M. A. (2005). Invited commentary: Hypothetical interventions to define causal effects—afterthought or prerequisite? American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(7), 618–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holland, P. W. (2001). The false linking of race and causality: Lessons from standardized testing. Race & Society, 4, 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. House, J. S., Lepkowski, J. M., Williams, D. R., Mero, R. P., Lantz, P. M., Robert, S. A., et al. (2000). Excess mortality among urban residents: How much, for whom, and why? American Journal of Epidemiology, 90(12), 1898–1904.Google Scholar
  18. Jemal, A., Ward, E., Hao, Y., & Thun, M. (2005). Trends in the leading causes of death in the United States, 1970–2002. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294, 1255–1259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaufman, J. S. (in press). Epidemiologic analysis of racial/ethnic disparities: Some fundamental issues and a cautionary example. Social Science & Medicine.Google Scholar
  20. Kaufman, J. S., & Cooper, R. S. (1999). Seeking causal explanations in social epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150(2), 113–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaufman, J. S., & Cooper, R. S. (2001). Commentary: Considerations for use of racial/ethnic classification in etiologic research. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(4), 291–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaufman, J.S., & Kaufman, S. (2001). Assessment of structured socio economic effects on health. Epidemiology, 12(2), 157–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaufman, J. S., & Kaufman, S. (2002). Estimating causal effects. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31(2), 431–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Loring, M., Powell, B. (1988). Gender, race, and DSM-III: A study of the objectivity of psychiatric diagnostic behavior. Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 29(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maldonado, G., & Greenland, S. (2002). Estimating causal effects (with discussion). International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 422–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murray, C. J. L., Ezzati, M., Lopez, A. D., Rodgers, A., & Vander Hoorn, S. (2003). Comparative quantification of health risks: Conceptual framework and methodological issues. Population Health Metrics, 1(1).Google Scholar
  27. Murray, C. J. L., Salomon, J. A., & Mathers, C. D. (2002). A critical examination of summary measures of population health. In C. J. L. Murray, J. A. Salomon, C. D. Mathers, & A. D. Lopez (Eds.), Summary measures of population health: Concepts, ethics, measurement and applications. Collections of papers on summary measures of population health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  28. Nord, E. (2002). My goodness—and yours: A history, and some possible futures, of DALY meanings and valuation procedures. In C. J. L. Murray, J. A. Salomon, C. D. Mathers, & A. D. Lopez (Eds.), Summary measures of population health: Concepts, ethics, measurement and applications. Collections of papers on summary measures of population health.Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  29. Packard, R. M. (1989). White plague, black labor: The political economy of health and diseases in South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  30. Pearl, J. (2000). Causality: Models, reasoning and inference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Pratt, J., & Schlaifer, R. (1988). On the interpretation and observation of laws. Journal of Econometrics, 39, 23–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Robins, J. M. (2001). Data, design, and background knowledge in etiologic inference. Epidemiology, 12(3), 313–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rosenberg, J. S. (2001). A worldly professor: Economist and former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Lawrence H. Summers returns to Harvard as the university’s twenty-seventh president. Harvard Magazine, 103(5), 30–38.Google Scholar
  34. Sakellariou, C. (2006). Education policy reform, local average treatment effect and returns to schooling from instrumental variables in the Philippines. Applied Economics, 38(4), 473–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schulman, K. A., Berlin, J. A., Harless, W., Kerner, J. F., Sistrunk, S., Gersh, B. J., et al. (1999). The effect of race and sex on physicians’ recommendations for cardiac catheterization. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(8), 618–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schulze, M. B., Manson, J. E., Ludwig, D. S., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., et al. (2004). Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 292, 927–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sobel, M. E. (1995). Causal inference in the social and behavioral sciences. In G. Arminger, C. Clogg, & M. E. Sobel (Eds.), Handbook of statistical modeling for the social and behavioral sciences. New York:Plenum.Google Scholar
  38. Sobel, M. E. (2006). Spatial concentration and social stratification: Does the clustering of disadvantage “beget” bad outcomes? In S. Bowles, S. N. Durlauf, & K. Hoff (Eds.), Poverty traps.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Steinbrook, R. (2005). The potential of human papillomavirus vaccines. New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 1109–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tengs, T. O., Adams, M. E., Pliskin, J. S., Safran, D. G., Siegel, J. E., Weinstein, M. C., et al. (1995). Five-hundred life-saving interventions and their cost-effectiveness. Risk Analysis, 15, 369–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Whitman, S. Good, G., Donoghue, E. R., Benbow, N., Shou, W., & Mou, S. (1997). Mortality in Chicago attributed to the July 1995 heat wave. American Journal of Public Health, 87(9), 1515–1518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Woodward, J. (2003). Making things happen: A theory of causal explanation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Yen, I. H., & Moss, N. (1999). Unbundling education: A critical discussion of what education confers and how it lowers risk for disease and death. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 350–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay S. Kaufman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations