Mass Media

  • K. Viswanath
  • Shoba Ramanadhan
  • Emily Z. Kontos


Mass Medium Health Disparity Television Viewing News Story Public Health Communication 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Advertising Age. (2006). Domestic ad spending by category, 2006 Edition. New York (June 23, 2006); ? 110123.Google Scholar
  2. Almind, T. C., & Ingwersen, P. (1997). Informetric analyses on the World Wide Web: Methodological approaches to “webometrics”. Journal of Documentation, 53(4), 404–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, R. E., Crespo, C. J., Bartlett, S. J., Cheskin, L. J., & Pratt, M. (1998). Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(12), 938–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Psychology. The effects of media violence on society. Science, 295(5564), 2377–2379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, C. A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L. R., Johnson, J. D., Linz, D., et al. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth Psychological Science(Supplement S), 81–110.Google Scholar
  7. Ariza, A. J., Chen, E. H., Binns, H. J., & Christoffel, K. K. (2004). Risk factors for overweight in five- to six-year-old Hispanic-American children: A pilot study. Journal of Urban Health, 81(1), 150–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berkman, L. F. (1986). Social networks, support, and health: Taking the next step forward. American Journal of Epidemiology, 123(4), 559–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, J. D., & Newcomer, S. F. (1991). Television viewing and adolescents’ sexual behavior. Journal of Homosexuality, 21(1–2), 77–91.Google Scholar
  10. Bryant, J., & Rockwell, S. (1994). Effects of massive exposure to sexually oriented prime-time television programming on adolescents’ moral judgment. In D. Zillmann, J. Bryant, & A. Huston (Eds.), Media, children, and the family. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Coon, K. A., Goldberg, J., Rogers, B. L., & Tucker, K. L. (2001). Relationships between use of television during meals and children’s food consumption patterns. Pediatrics, 107(1), E7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooper, L., & Roter, D. (2003). Patient-provider communication: The effect of race and ethnicity on process and outcomes of healthcare. In B. Smedley, A. Stith, & A. Nelson (Eds.), Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  13. Corrigan, P. W., Watson, A. C., Gracia, G., Slopen, N., Rasinski, K., & Hall, L. L. (2005). Newspaper stories as measures of structural stigma. Psychiatric Services, 56(5), 551–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coverdale, J., Nairn, R., & Claasen, D. (2002). Depictions of mental illness in print media: a prospective national sample. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36(5), 697–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demers, D. (1996). Does personal experience in a community increase or decrease newspaper reading? Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 73(2), 304–318.Google Scholar
  16. Demers, D., & Viswanath, K. (Eds.). (1999). Mass media, social control and social change: A macrosocial perspective. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dietz, W. H., Jr., & Gortmaker, S. L. (1985). Do we fatten our children at the television set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 75(5), 807–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Doob, A., & Macdonald, G. (1979). Television viewing and fear of victimization: Is the relationship causal? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(2), 170–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing – toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ettema, J. S., & Whitney, D. C. (Eds.). (1994). Audiencemaking: How the media create the audience.Volume 22. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Fishman, M. (1980). Manufacturing the news. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  22. Francis, C., Pirkis, J., Blood, R. W., Dunt, D., Burgess, P., Morley, B., et al. (2004). The portrayal of mental health and illness in Australian non-fiction media. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38(7), 541–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Friedland, L. A., & McLeod, J. M. (1999). Community integration and mass media: A reconsideration. In D. Demers & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Mass media, social control & social change: A macrosocial perspective. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Galea, S., & Vilahov, D. (2005). Handbook of urban health: Populations, methods, and practice. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Gandy, O. H. (1982). Beyond agenda setting: Information subsidies and public policy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Gaziano, C. (1983). The knowledge gap – an analytical review of media effects. Communication Research, 10(4), 447–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., Signorielli, N., & Shanahan, J. (2002). Growing up with television: Cultivation processes. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory research.2nd edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Gilpin, E. A., Emery, S., White, M. M., & Pierce, J. P. (2003). Changes in youth smoking participation in California in the 1990s. Cancer Causes & Control, 14(10), 985–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gitlin, T. (2003). The whole world is watching: Mass media in the making & unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  30. Goldstein, A. O., Sobel, R. A., & Newman, G. R. (1999). Tobacco and alcohol use in Grated children’s animated films. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(12), 1131–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gortmaker, S. L., Must, A., Sobol, A. M., Peterson, K., Colditz, G. A., & Dietz, W. H. (1996). Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 150(4), 356–362.Google Scholar
  32. Green, M. C., & Brock, T. C. (2000). The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 701–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hazan, A. R., Lipton, H. L., & Glantz, S. A. (1994). Popular films do not reflect current tobacco use. American Journal of Public Health, 84(6), 998–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hilgartner, S., & Bosk, C. L. (1988). The rise and fall of social problems – a public arenas model. American Journal of Sociology, 94(1), 53–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hirsch, P. (1980). The scary world of the nonviewer and other anomalies: A reanalysis of Gerbner et al.’s findings on cultivation analysis. Communication Research, 7, 403–456.Google Scholar
  36. Hogben, M., & Byrne, D. (1998). Using social learning theory to explain individual difference in human sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 35(1), 58–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hornik, R. (2002a). Public health communication: Making sense of contradictory evidence. In R. Hornik (Ed.), Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Hornik, R. (Ed.). (2002b). Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. IMS Health. (2006). IMS 2005 annual report. (2006); AR.pdf.Google Scholar
  40. Institute of Medicine. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  41. Institute of Medicine. (2005). Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity? Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  42. Institute of Medicine, & Committee on Communication for Behavior Change in the 21st Century: Improving the Health of Diverse Populations. (2002). Speaking of health: Assessing health communication strategies for diverse populations. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  43. Iyengar, S., & Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters: Television and American opinion. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. Kaplan, G. A. (2004). What’s wrong with social epidemiology, and how can we make it better? Epidemiologic Reviews, 26, 124–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kawachi, I. (1999). Social capital and community effects on population and individual health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 120–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kawachi, I., & Berkman, L. (2000). Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In L. Berkman & I. Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology.New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kawachi, I., & Kroenke, C. (2006). Socioeconomic disparities in cancer incidence and mortality. In D. Schottenfeld & J. F. J. Fraumeni (Eds.), Cancer epidemiology and prevention.3rd edition. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. King, A. C., Stokols, D., Talen, E., Brassington, G. S., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). Theoretical approaches to the promotion of physical activity: Forging a transdisciplinary paradigm. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(2 Supplement), 15–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Krieger, N. (2005). Defining and investigating social disparities in cancer: Critical issues. Cancer Causes & Control, 16(1), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuribayashi, A., Roberts, M. C., & Johnson, R. J. (2001). Actual nutritional information of products advertised to children and adults on Saturday. Children’s Health Care, 30(4), 309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lauber, C., Nordt, C., Falcato, L., & Rossler, W. (2004). Factors influencing social distance toward people with mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 40(3), 265–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lemert, J. B. (1981). Does mass communication change public opinion after all? A new approach to effects analysis. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  53. Malamuth, N. M., & Impett, E. A. (2001). Research on sex in the media: What do we know about effects on children and adolescents? In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  54. Matheson, D. M., Killen, J. D., Wang, Y., Varady, A., & Robinson, T. N. (2004). Children’s food consumption during television viewing. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(6), 1088–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. McCarthy, J. D., & Wolfson, M. (1996). Resource mobilization by local social movement social organizations. American Sociological Review, 61, 1070–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McCombs, M. E., & Ghanem, S. I. (2001). The convergence of agenda setting and framing. In S. D. Reese, O. H. Gandy, & A. E. Grant (Eds.), Framing public life: Perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world.Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Meissner, H. I., Potosky, A. L., & Convissor, R. (1992). How sources of health information relate to knowledge and use of cancer screening exams. Journal of Community Health, 17(3), 153–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Molotch, H. (1979). Media and movements. In M. N. Zald & J. D. McCarthy (Eds.), The dynamics of social movements: Resource mobilization, social control and social tactics. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop Publishers.Google Scholar
  59. Nairn, R., & Coverdale, J. (2005). People never see us living well: An appraisal of the personal stories about mental illness in a prospective print media sample. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(4), 281–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nairn, R., Coverdale, J., & Claasen, D. (2001). From source material to news story in New Zealand print media: A prospective study of the stigmatizing processes in depicting mental illness. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35(5), 654–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Noelle-Neumann, E. (1984). The spiral of silence: Public opinion – our second skin. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  62. Paik, H., & Comstock, G. (1994). The effects of television violence on anti-social behavior. Communication Research, 21(4), 516–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Paltoo, D. N., & Chu, K. C. (2004). Patterns in cancer incidence among American Indians/Alaska natives, United States, 1992–1999. Public Health Reports, 119(4), 443–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pan, Z., & Kosicki, G. M. (2001). Framing as a strategic action in public deliberation. In S. D. Reese, O. H. Gandy, & A. E. Grant (Eds.), Framing public life: Perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  65. Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., Diez-Roux, A., Kawachi, I., & Levin, B. (2004). “Fundamental causes” of social inequalities in mortality: A test of the theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45(3), 265–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Phillips, D. P., Kanter, E. J., Bednarczyk, B., & Tastad, P. L. (1991). Importance of the lay press in the transmission of medical knowledge to the scientific community. New England Journal of Medicine, 325(16), 1180–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pirkis, J., Blood, R. W., Francis, C., & McCallum, K. (2006). On-screen portrayals of mental illness: Extent, nature, and impacts. Journal of Health Communication, 11(5), 523–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of the American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  69. Reese, S. D., Gandy, O. H., & Grant, A. E. (Eds.). (2001). Framing public life: Perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  70. Ries, L. A. G., Eisner, M. P., Kosary, C. L., Hankey, B. F., Miller, B. A., Clegg, L., et al. (Eds.). (2004). SEER cancer statistics review, 1975 – 2001. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
  71. Roberts, D., Henriksen, L., & Christenson, P. (1999). Substance use in popular movies and music. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy.Google Scholar
  72. Robinson, J. P., & Levy, M. (1986). The main source: Learning from television news. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  73. Rowland, W. D. (1983). The politics of TV violence: Policy uses of communication research. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  74. Sargent, J. D., Beach, M. L., Adachi-Mejia, A. M., Gibson, J. J., Titus-Ernstoff, L. T., Carusi, C. P., et al. (2005). Exposure to movie smoking: its relation to smoking initiation among US adolescents. Pediatrics, 116(5), 1183–1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schwartz, L. M., & Woloshin, S. (2002). News media coverage of screening mammography for women in their 40s and tamoxifen for primary prevention of breast cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(23), 3136–3142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shanahan, J., & Morgan, M. (1999). Television and its viewers: Cultivation theory and research. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Shaw, D., & McCombs, M. (Eds.). (1977). The emergence of American political issues. St. Paul, MN: West.Google Scholar
  78. Shoemaker, P., & Reese, S. (1996). Mediating the message: Theories of influences on mass media content.2nd edition. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  79. Shrum, L. J., & Darmanin, V. (1998). Understanding the effects of television consumption on judgments of crime risk: The impact of direct experience and type of judgment. In K. Machleit & M. Campbell (Eds.), Society for Consumer Psychology 1998 Winter Conference Proceedings.Google Scholar
  80. Shrum, L. J., O’Guinn, T. C., Semenik, R. J., & Faber, R. J. (1991). Processes and effects in the construction of normative consumer beliefs: The role of television. In R. H. Hollman & M. R. Solomon (Eds.), Advances in consumer research. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  81. Sissors, J., & Bumba, L. (1989). Advertising media planning.3rd edition. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.Google Scholar
  82. Stroebele, N., & de Castro, J. M. (2004). Television viewing is associated with an increase in meal frequency in humans. Appetite, 42(1), 111–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Taras, H. L., Sallis, J. F., Patterson, T. L., Nader, P. R., & Nelson, J. A. (1989). Television’s influence on children’s diet and physical activity. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 10(4), 176–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tichenor, P. J., Donohue, G. A., & Olien, C. N. (1980). Community conflict and the press. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  85. Tuchman, G. (1978). Making news: A study in the construction of reality. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  86. Viswanath, K. (2005). The communications revolution and cancer control. Nature Reviews Cancer, 5(10), 828–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Viswanath, K. (2006). Public communications and its role in reducing and eliminating health disparities. In G. E. Thomson, F. Mitchell, & M. B. Williams (Eds.), Examining the health disparities research plan of the national institutes of health: Unfinished business.. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.Google Scholar
  88. Viswanath, K., & Finnegan, J. R. (1996). The knowledge gap hypothesis: Twenty five years later. In B. Burleson (Ed.), Communication yearbook 19. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  89. Viswanath, K., & Demers, D. (1999). Mass media from a macrosocial perspective. In D. Demers & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Mass media, social control and social change: A macrosocial perspective. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Viswanath, K., & Finnegan, J. R. (2002). Community health campaigns and secular trends: Insights from the Minnesota Heart Health Program and Community Trials in Heart Disease Prevention. In R. Hornik (Ed.), Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change.New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  91. Viswanath, K., Breen, N., Meissner, H., Moser, R. P., Hesse, B., Steele, W. R., et al. (2006). Cancer knowledge and disparities in the information age. Journal of Health Communication, 11(Supplement 1), 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Viswanath, K., Randolph Steele, W., & Finnegan, J. (2006). Social capital and health: Civic engagement, community size, and recall of health messages. American Journal of Public Health, 96(8), 1456–1461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wallack, L., & Dorfman, L. (1996). Media advocacy: a strategy for advancing policy and promoting health. Health Education Quarterly, 23(3), 293–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ward, G. W., Morrison, W., & Schreiber, G. (1982). Pilot study of health professionals’ awareness and opinions of the hypertension information in the mass media they use. Public Health Reports, 97(2), 113–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Wartella, E., & Reeves, B. (1985). Historical trends in research on children and the media – 1900–1960. Journal of Communication, 35(2), 118–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wechsler, H., Nelson, T. F., Lee, J. E., Seibring, M., Lewis, C., & Keeling, R. P. (2003). Perception and reality: A national evaluation of social norms marketing interventions to reduce college students’ heavy alcohol use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(4), 484–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Yanovitzky, I., & Blitz, C. L. (2000). Effect of media coverage and physician advice on utilization of breast cancer screening by women 40 years and older. Journal of Health Communication, 5(2), 117–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Viswanath
  • Shoba Ramanadhan
  • Emily Z. Kontos

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations