Patent Law and Policy

  • Aaron S. Kesselheim
  • Jerry Avorn


Intellectual Property Visceral Leishmaniasis Patent Protection Federal Trade Commission Patent System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrews, L. B. (2002). Genes and patent policy: Rethinking intellectual property rights. Nature Reviews Genetics, 3, 803–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Attaran, A., & Gillespie-White, L. (2001). Do patents for antiretroviral drugs constrain access to AIDS treatment in Africa? Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 1886–1892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful medicines: The benefits, risks, and costs of prescription drugs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  4. Avorn, J. . (2005). Sending pharma better signals. Science, 309, 669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bar-Shalom, A., & Cook-Deegan, R. (2002). Patents and innovation in cancer therapeu tics: Lessons from CellPro. Milbank Quarterly, 80, 637–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barton, J. H. (2004). TRIPS and the global pharmaceutical market. Health Affairs, 23, 146–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blumenthal, D., Campbell, E. G., Anderson, M. S., Causino, N., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Withholding research results in academic life science. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 1224–1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blumenthal, D., Causino, N., Campbell, E., & Louis, K. S. (1996). Relationships between academic institutions and industry in the life sciences—an industry survey. New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 368–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bosch, X. (2004). Myriad loses rights to breast cancer gene patent. Lancet, 363, 1780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butler, D., & Goodman, S. (2001). French researchers take a stand against cancer gene patent. Nature, 413, 95–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, W. M., Nelson, R. R., & Walsh J. P. (2000). Protecting their intellectual assets: Appropriability conditions and why U.S. manufacturing firms patent (or not). National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 7552.Google Scholar
  12. Congressional Budget Office. (2006). Research and development in the pharmaceutical industry. (October, 2006);–02-DrugR-D.pdf.Google Scholar
  13. Cook-Deegan, R. M., & McCormack, S. J. (2001). Patents, secrecy and DNA. Science, 293, 217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eisenberg, R. S. (1996). Public research and private development: Patents and technology transfer in government-sponsored research. Virginia Law Review, 82, 1663–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Federal Trade Commission. (2002). Generic drug entry prior to patent expiration. (July, 2002); Scholar
  16. Fischer, M. A., & Avorn, J. (2004). Economic implications of evidence-based prescribing for hypertension: Can better care cost less? Journal of the American Medical Association, 291, 1850–1856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grabowski, H. (2002). Patents, innovation and access to new pharmaceuticals. Journal of International Economic Law, 5, 849–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Haas, J. S., Phillips, K. A., Gerstenberger, E. P., & Seger A. C. (2005). Potential savings from substituting generic drugs for brand-name drugs: Medical expenditure panel survey 1997–2000. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142, 891–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hale, V. G., Woo, K., & Lipton H. L. (2005). Oxymoron no more: The potential of nonprofit drug companies to deliver on the promise of medicines for the developing world. Health Affairs, 24, 1057–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heffler, S., Smith, S., Keehan, S., Clemens, M. K., Won, G., & Zezza, M. (2003). Health spending projections for 2002–2012. Health Affairs, (Supplemental Web Exclusive), W3 – 54–65.Google Scholar
  21. Heller, M. A., & Eisenberg, R. S. (1998). Can patents deter innovation? The anticommons in biomedical research. Science, 280, 698–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jaffe, A. B., & Lerner, J (2004). Innovation and its discontents. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kapczynski, A., Chaifetz, S., Katz, Z., & Benkler, Y. (2005). Addressing global health inequities: An open licensing approach for university innovations. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 20, 1031–114.Google Scholar
  24. Kesselheim, A. S., & Avorn, J. (2005). University-based science and biotechnology products: Defining the boundaries of intellectual property. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 850–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kesselheim, A. S., & Avorn, J. (2006). Biomedical patents and the public health. Is there a role for eminent domain? Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 434–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kesselheim, A. S., Fischer, M. A., & Avorn, J. (2006). Extensions of intellectual property rights and delayed adoption of generic drugs: Effects on Medicaid expenditures. Health Affairs, 25, 1637–1647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kesselheim, A. S., & Mello, M. M. (2006). Medical process patents – monopolizing the delivery of health care. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 2036–2041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Levin, R. C. (2002). FTC/DOJ joint hearings on competition and intellectual property law. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission.Google Scholar
  29. Love, J. (2004). NIH meeting on Norvir/Ritonavir march-in request. (May 25, 2004); Scholar
  30. Merz, J. F., Kriss, A. G., Leonard, D. G., & Cho, M. K. (2002). Diagnostic testing fails the test. Nature, 415, 577–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Okie, S. (2006). Fighting HIV – lessons from Brazil. New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 1977–1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pecoul, B., Chirac, P., Trouiller, P., & Pinel, J. (1999). Access to essential drugs in poor countries: A lost battle? Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 361–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pollock, A. M., & Price, D. (2003). New deal from the World Trade Organisation. British Medical Journal, 327, 571–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rai, A. K., & Eisenberg, R. S. (2003). The public domain: Bayh-Dole reform and the progress of biomedicine. Law & Contemporary Problems, 66, 288–313.Google Scholar
  35. Shapiro, C. (2001). Navigating the patent thicket: Cross licenses, patent pools and standard-setting. In A. Jaffe, J. Lerner, & S. Stern (Eds.), Innovation policy and the economy.volume I. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  36. Sobolski, G. K., Barton, J. H., & Emanuel, E. J. (2005). Technology licensing: Lessons from the US experience. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294, 3137–3140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tamblyn, R., Laprise, R., Hanley, J. A., Abrahamowicz, M., Scott, S., Mayo, N., et al. (2001). Adverse events associated with prescription drug cost-sharing among poor and elderly persons. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 421–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Troullier, P., Olliaro, P., Torreele, E., Orbinski, J., Laing, R., & Ford, N. (2002). Drug development for neglected disease: A deficient market and public-health policy failure. Lancet, 359, 2188–2194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Universities Allied for Essential Medicine. (2006). Philadelphia consensus statement on university policy for health-related innovations. (2006); Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aaron S. Kesselheim
  • Jerry Avorn

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations