Attitudes to Religion, Education, and Status in Worker Settlements: The Architectural and Archaeological Evidence from Wales

  • Stephen R. Hughes
Part of the Contributions To Global Historical Archaeology book series (CGHA)


The main detailed study area studied for the present chapter is within western Britain and relates to the nation of Wales and largely to parts of the south Wales coalfield which became the largest in Britain in the early twentieth century and the largest exporting coalfield internationally . However, the main period of study is in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when that coalfield sustained the largest complexes of ironworks, and of copperworks, in the world.


Nineteenth Century Early Nineteenth Century South Walis Common Land World Centre 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Much of the information for this chapter is informed from work undertaken on the industrial settlements of the lower Swansea Valley for the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales, reprinted as Copperopolis in 2005 (see The work on nonconformist chapels owes much to my colleagues on the chapels project, David Percival, Olwen Jenkins, Penny Icke, Geoff Ward, and to John Davies. My former colleague Olwen Jenkins also carried out a detailed study of the remaining Blaenavon settlement. Detailed information on sites and buildings in Wales is available on the online Coflein database of the Royal Commission at Much of the European context of this chapter is drawn from sites explained by colleagues present at successive meetings of TICCIH. Professor Louis Bergeron’s is an additional study of international worker settlements that can be found in the “Studies for the World Heritage” section on the ICOMOS website at


  1. Barber, C., 2002, Exploring Blaenavon Industrial Landscape World Heritage Site. Blorenge Books, Abergavenny.Google Scholar
  2. Bick, D., 1976, The Old Metal Mines of Mid-Wales. Pound House, Newent.Google Scholar
  3. Bick, D., 2004, Waller’s Description of the Mines in Cardiganshire. Black Dwarf Publications, Witney.Google Scholar
  4. Channel 4, 2009, Time Team: The Lost Viaduct, Blaenafon, South Wales, 4 February 2001. Channel Four Television Corporation and 4 Ventures Limited, London, May 15, 2009,
  5. Clement, M., 1952, Correspondence and Minutes of the S.P.C.K. Relating to Wales 1699–1740. University of Wales Press, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  6. Coleman, B. I., 1980, The Church of England in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: A Social Geography. The Historical Association, London.Google Scholar
  7. Davies, J., 1992, Hanes Cymru. Penguin, London.Google Scholar
  8. Evans, L. W., 1971, Education in Industrial Wales, 1700–1900. University of Wales Press, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  9. Henderson, W. O., 1969, The Industrialization of Europe, 1780–1914. Harcourt, Brace, & World, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  10. Hughes, S. R., 1990, The Archaeology of an Early Railway System: The Brecon Forest Tramroads. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales, Aberystwyth.Google Scholar
  11. Hughes, S. R., 2000, Copperopolis: Landscapes of the Early Industrial Period in Swansea. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales, Aberystwyth.Google Scholar
  12. Hughes, S. R., 2003, Thomas Thomas, 1817–88: The First National Architect of Wales. Archaeologia Cambrensis 152:69–166.Google Scholar
  13. Hughes, S. R., 2004a, The International Collieries Study: Part of the Global Strategy for a Balanced World Heritage List. Industrial Archaeology Review 26(2):95–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hughes, S. R., 2004b, Social Archaeology: A Possible Methodology of the Study of Workers’ Settlements based on the 18th and 19th Century Copper Industry of Swansea. In The Archaeology of Industrialization, edited by D. Barker and D. Cranstone, pp. 137–154. Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology Monographs 2. Maney, Leeds.Google Scholar
  15. Hughes, S. R., 2005, Institutional Buildings in Worker Settlements. Industrial Archaeology Review 27(1):153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hughes, S. R., and Timberlake, S., 2003, Industrial Installations. In The Archaeology of the Welsh Uplands, edited by D. Browne and S. Hughes, pp. 41–60. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales, Aberystwyth.Google Scholar
  17. Jenkins, D. G., 1975, Buildings and Morphology in Blaenavon. Undergraduate dissertation, Caerleon College of Education. University of Wales, Newport.Google Scholar
  18. Jenkins, O., 2002, The Development of Blaenavon Town. Manuscript on file at the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales, Aberystwyth.Google Scholar
  19. Jones, G. E., 1994, Modern Wales: A Concise History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  20. Lowe, J. B., 1977, Welsh Industrial Workers Housing. National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  21. Lowe, J. B., 1982, Housing as a Source for Industrial History: A Case Study of Blaenafon, a Welsh Ironworks Settlement from 1788 to c1845. IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology 8(1):13–36.Google Scholar
  22. Pretty, D. A., 1977, Two Centuries of Anglesey Schools. Anglesey Antiquarian Society, Llangefni.Google Scholar
  23. Wakelin, P., 2006, Blaenavon Ironworks and World Heritage Landscape. Cadw, Cardiff.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Survey BranchRoyal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of WalesWalesUK

Personalised recommendations