Advertisement

Vascular Dementia

  • Joel H. Kramer
  • Margaret E. Wetzel
Chapter

Dementia is one of the major health risks facing elderly individuals. Prevalence of dementia in the United States is currently around seven million individuals with the number of cases expected to increase by 25% over the next 20 years.

As currently defined, dementia represents cognitive impairment that is severe enough to significantly interfere with occupational, social, or functional abilities. The causes of dementia are varied and accurate differential diagnosis is critical for identifying treatable disorders and ameliorating the impact of disorders for which there are no treatments. In the vast majority of patients over the age of 50, the most disabling and progressive conditions are either neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, parkinsonian syndromes) or vascular in origin. In this chapter, we will review several features of vascular dementia (VaD), including diagnostic criteria, prevalence, underlying mechanisms and subtypes, comorbidity with...

Keywords

Cerebrovascular Disease Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Small Vessel Disease Focal Neurological Sign Dementia Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Babikan, V., & Ropper, A. H. (1987). Binswanger’s disease: a review. Stroke, 18, 2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bjeljac, M., Keller, E., Regard, M., & Yonekawa, Y. (2002). Neurological and neuropsychological outcome after SAH. Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement, 82, 83–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Black, S. E. (2005). Vascular dementia. Stroke risk and sequelae define therapeutic approaches. Postgraduate Medicine, 117(1), 15–16, 19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bogousslavsky, J., Regli, F., & Uske, A. (1988). Thalamic infarcts: clinical syndromes, etiology, and prognosis. Neurology, 38(6), 837–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brun, A. (1994). Pathology and pathophysiology of cerebrovascular dementia: pure subgroups of obstructive and hypoperfusive etiology. Dementia, 5(3–4), 145–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Capizzano, A. A., Schuff, N., Amend, D. L., Tanabe, J. L., Norman, D., Maudsley, A. A., et al. (2000). Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia: assessment with quantitative MR imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 21(4), 621–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Caplan, L. R., & Schoene, W. C. (1978). Clinical features of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger disease). Neurology, 28(12), 1206–1215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carew, T. G., Lamar, M., Cloud, B. S., Grossman, M., & Libon, D. J. (1997). Impairment in category fluency in ischemic vascular dementia. Neuropsychology, 11(3), 400–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charlton, R. A., Morris, R. G., Nitkunan, A., & Markus, H. S. (2006). The cognitive profiles of CADASIL and sporadic small vessel disease. Neurology, 66(10), 1523–1526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chui, H. C. (1989). Dementia. A review emphasizing clinicopathologic correlation and brain-behavior relationships. Archives of Neurology, 46(7), 806–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chui, H. C., Mack, W., Jackson, J. E., Mungas, D., Reed, B. R., Tinklenberg, J., et al. (2000). Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of vascular dementia: a multicenter study of comparability and interrater reliability. Archives of Neurology, 57(191–6).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chui, H. C., Victoroff, J. I., Margolin, D., Jagust, W., Shankle, R., & Katzman, R. (1992). Criteria for the diagnosis of ischemic vascular dementia proposed by the State of California Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers. Neurology, 42(3 Pt 1), 473–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chui, H. C., Zarow, C., Mack, W. J., Ellis, W. G., Zheng, L., Jagust, W. J., et al. (2006). Cognitive impact of subcortical vascular and Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Annals of Neurology, 60(6), 677–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cosentino, S. A., Jefferson, A. L., Carey, M., Price, C. C., Davis-Garrett, K., Swenson, R., et al. (2004). The clinical diagnosis of vascular dementia: A comparison among four classification systems and a proposal for a new paradigm. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 18(1), 6–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cummings, J. L. (1995). Anatomic and behavioral aspects of frontal-subcortical circuits. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 769, 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davous, P. (1998). CADASIL: a review with proposed diagnostic criteria. European Journal of Neurology, 5(3), 219–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de la Torre, J. C. (2002). Alzheimer disease as a vascular disorder: nosological evidence. Stroke, 33(4), 1152–1162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DeCarli, C., Mungas, D., Harvey, D., Reed, B., Weiner, M., Chui, H., et al. (2004). Memory impairment, but not cerebrovascular disease, predicts progression of MCI to dementia. Neurology, 63(2), 220–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. D’Esposito, M., Alexander, M. P., Fischer, R., McGlinchey-Berroth, R., & O’Connor, M. (1996). Recovery of memory and executive function following anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2(6), 565–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Erker, G. J., Searight, H. R., & Peterson, P. (1995). Patterns of neuropsychological functioning among patients with multi-infarct and Alzheimer’s dementia: a comparative analysis. International Psychogeriatrics, 7(3), 393–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Erkinjuntti, T. (1997). Vascular dementia: challenge of clinical diagnosis. International Psychogeriatrics, 9 Suppl 1, 51–58; discussion 77–83.Google Scholar
  22. Erkinjuntti, T. (2002). Diagnosis and management of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum, (63), 91–109.Google Scholar
  23. Fein, G., Di Sclafani, V., Tanabe, J., Cardenas, V., Weiner, M. W., Jagust, W. J., et al. (2000). Hippocampal and cortical atrophy predict dementia in subcortical ischemic vascular disease. Neurology, 55(11), 1626–1635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Firbank, M. J., Lloyd, A. J., Ferrier, N., & O’Brien, J. T. (2004). A volumetric study of MRI signal hyperintensities in late-life depression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12(6), 606–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gearing, M., Mirra, S. S., Hedreen, J. C., Sumi, S. M., Hansen, L. A., & Heyman, A. (1995). The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). Part X. Neuropathology confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 45(3 Pt 1), 461–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gold, G., Bouras, C., Canuto, A., Bergallo, M. F., Herrmann, F. R., Hof, P. R., et al. (2002). Clinicopathological validation study of four sets of clinical criteria for vascular dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(1), 82–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gorelick, P. B. (2004). Risk factors for vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease. Stroke, 35(11 Suppl 1), 2620–2622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hachinski, V. C., Illiff, L. D., Zilhka, E., du Boulay, G. H., McAllister, V. L., & Marchall, J. (1975). Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Archives of Neurology, 32, 632–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hassing, L., & Backman, L. (1997). Episodic memory functioning in population-based samples of very old adults with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 8(6), 376–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henon, H. (2002). Neuroimaging predictors of dementia in stroke patients. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 24(7–8), 677–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jellinger, K. A. (2002). The pathology of ischemic-vascular dementia: an update. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 203–204, 153–157.Google Scholar
  32. Jimbo, H., Hanakawa, K., Ozawa, H., Dohi, K., Sawabe, Y., Matsumoto, K., et al. (2000). Neuropsychological changes after surgery for anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica (Tokyo), 40(2), 83–86; discussion 86–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kemenoff, L. A., Kramer, J.H., Mungas, D., Reed, B., Willis, L., Weiner, M., and Chui, H. (1999). Neuropsychological differentiation of vascular and Alzheimer’s dementia. Poster session presented at the 107th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston.Google Scholar
  34. Kertesz, A., & Clydesdale, S. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits in vascular dementia vs Alzheimer’s disease: frontal lobe deficits prominent in vascular dementia. Archives of Neurology, 51, 1226–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Knopman, D. S., DeKosky, S. T., Cummings, J. L., Chui, H., Corey-Bloom, J., Relkin, N., et al. (2001). Practice parameter: diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 56(9), 1143–1153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Knopman, D. S., & Nissen, M. J. (1991). Procedural learning is impaired in Huntington’s disease: evidence from the serial reaction time task. Neuropsychologia, 29, 245–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kobayashi, S., Okada, K., Koide, H., Bokura, H., & Yamaguchi, S. (1997). Subcortical silent brain infarction as a risk factor for clinical stroke. Stroke, 28(10), 1932–1939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kooistra, C. A., & Heilman, K. M. (1988). Memory loss from a subcortical white matter infarct. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 51(6), 866–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kramer, J. H., Mungas, D., Reed, B. R., Schuff, N., Weiner, M. W., Miller, B. L., et al. (2004). Forgetting in dementia with and without subcortical lacunes. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 18(1), 32–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kwan, L. T., Reed, B. R., Eberling, J. L., Schuff, N., Tanabe, J., Norman, D., et al. (1999). Effects of subcortical cerebral infarction on cortical glucose metabolism and cognitive function. Archives of Neurology, 56(7), 809–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lafosse, J. M., Reed, B. R., Mungas, D., Sterling, S. B., Wahbeh, H., & Jagust, W. J. (1997). Fluency and memory differences between ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology, 11(4), 514–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Libon, D. J., Bogdanoff, B., Cloud, B. S., Skalina, S., Giovannetti, T., Gitlin, H. L., et al. (1998). Declarative and procedural learning, quantitative measures of the hippocampus, and subcortical white alterations in Alzheimer’s disease and ischaemic vascular dementia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20(1), 30–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Libon, D. J., Price, C. C., Davis Garrett, K., & Giovannetti, T. (2004). From Binswanger’s disease to leuokoaraiosis: what we have learned about subcortical vascular dementia. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 18(1), 83–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Loeb, C. (2000). Binswanger’s disease is not a single entity. Neurological Sciences, 21(6), 343–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Loeb, C., & Gandolfo, C. (1983). Diagnostic evaluation of degenerative and vascular dementia. Stroke, 14(3), 399–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Loeb, C., Gandolfo, C., Croce, R., & Conti, M. (1992). Dementia associated with lacunar infarction. Stroke, 23(9), 1225–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Loeb, C., & Meyer, J. S. (1996). Vascular dementia: still a debatable entity? Journal of Neurological Sciences, 143(1–2), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Longstreth, W. T., Jr., Bernick, C., Manolio, T. A., Bryan, N., Jungreis, C. A., & Price, T. R. (1998). Lacunar infarcts defined by magnetic resonance imaging of 3660 elderly people: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Archives of Neurology, 55(9), 1217–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Markus, H. S., Martin, R. J., Simpson, M. A., Dong, Y. B., Ali, N., Crosby, A. H., et al. (2002). Diagnostic strategies in CADASIL. Neurology, 59(8), 1134–1138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mendez, M. F., & Ashla-Mendez, M. (1991). Differences between multi-infarct dementia and Alzheimer’s disease on unstructured neuropsychological tasks. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13(6), 923–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mungas, D., Jagust, W. J., Reed, B. R., Kramer, J. H., Weiner, M. W., Schuff, N., et al. (2001). MRI predictors of cognition in subcortical ischemic vascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 57(12), 2229–2235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Mungas, D., Reed, B. R., & Kramer, J. H. (2003). Psychometrically matched measures of global cognition, memory, and executive function for assessment of cognitive decline in older persons. Neuropsychology, 17(3), 380–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nolan, K. A., Lino, M. M., Seligmann, A. W., & Blass, J. P. (1998). Absence of vascular dementia in an autopsy series from a dementia clinic. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(5), 597–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. O’Brien, J. T., Erkinjuntti, T., Reisberg, B., Roman, G., Sawada, T., Pantoni, L., et al. (2003). Vascular cognitive impairment. Lancet Neurology, 2(2), 89–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Padovani, A., Di Piero, V., Bragoni, M., Iacoboni, M., Gualdi, G. F., & Lenzi, G. L. (1995). Patterns of neuropsychological impairment in mild dementia: a comparison between Alzheimer’s disease and multi-infarct dementia. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 92(6), 433–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Peters, N., Opherk, C., Danek, A., Ballard, C., Herzog, J., & Dichgans, M. (2005). The Pattern of Cognitive Performance in CADASIL: A Monogenic Condition Leading to Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(11), 2078–2085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Price, T. R., Manolio, T. A., Kronmal, R. A., Kittner, S. J., Yue, N. C., Robbins, J., et al. (1997). Silent brain infarction on magnetic resonance imaging and neurological abnormalities in community-dwelling older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. CHS Collaborative Research Group. Stroke, 28(6), 1158–1164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rabinstein, A. A., Romano, J. G., Forteza, A. M., & Koch, S. (2004). Rapidly Progressive Dementia Due to Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion with Infarction of the Total Length of the Corpus Callosum. Journal of Neuroimaging, 14(2), 176–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Reed, B. R., Mungas, D. M., Kramer, J. H., Betz, B. P., Ellis, W., Vinters, H. V., et al. (2004). Clinical and neuropsychological features in autopsy-defined vascular dementia. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 18(1), 63–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reed, B. R., Mungas, D. M., Kramer, J. H., Ellis, W., Vinters, H. V., Zarow, C., et al. (2007). Profiles of neuropsychological impairment in autopsy-defined Alzheimer’s disease and cerebrovascular disease. Brain, 130(Pt 3), 731–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Roman, G. C. (1987). Senile dementia of the Binswanger type. A vascular form of dementia in the elderly. JAMA, 258(13), 1782–1788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roman, G. C. (2005). Vascular dementia prevention: a risk factor analysis. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20 Suppl 2, 91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Roman, G. C., Erkinjuntti, T., Wallin, A., Pantoni, L., & Chui, H. C. (2002). Subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia. Lancet Neurology, 1(7), 426–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Roman, G. C., Tatemichi, T. K., & Erkinjuntii, T. (1993). Vascular Dementia: Diagnostic criteria for research studies. Neurology, 43, 250–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Rosen, W. G., Terry, R. D., Fuld, P. A., Katzman, R., & Peck, A. (1980). Pathological verification of ischaemic score in differentiation of the dementias. Annals of Neurology, 7, 486–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sacco, R. L. (1994). Ischemic Stroke. In P. B. Gorelick, M. Alter (Ed.), Handbook of Neuroepidemiology (pp. 77–119). New York: Marcel Decker, Inc.Google Scholar
  67. Schoenberg, B. S., & Shulte, B.P.M. (1988). Cerebrovascular disease: epidemiology and geopathology. In P. J. Vinkin, G.W. Bruyn, H.L. Klawans, (Ed.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vascular Diseases (Vol. Part 1, Volume 53, pp. 1–26).Google Scholar
  68. Simpson, S. W., Jackson, A., Baldwin, R. C., & Burns, A. (1997). 1997 IPA/Bayer Research Awards in Psychogeriatrics. Subcortical hyperintensities in late-life depression: acute response to treatment and neuropsychological impairment. International Psychogeriatrics, 9(3), 257–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sultzer, D. L., Mahler, M. E., Cummings, J. L., Van Gorp, W. G., Hinkin, C. H., & Brown, C. (1995). Cortical abnormalities associated with subcortical lesions in vascular dementia. Clinical and position emission tomographic findings. Archives of Neurology, 52(8), 773–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., Paik, M., & et al. (1993). Clinical determinants of dementia related to stroke. Annals of Neurology, 33, 568–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., Prohovnik, I., Cross, D. T., Gropen, T. I., Mohr, J. P., et al. (1992). Confusion and memory loss from capsular genu infarction: a thalamocortical disconnection syndrome? Neurology, 42, 1966–1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Tei, H., Miyazaki, A., Iwata, M., Osawa, M., Nagata, Y., & Maruyama, S. (1997). Early-stage Alzheimer’s disease and multiple subcortical infarction with mild cognitive impairment: neuropsychological comparison using an easily applicable test battery. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 8(6), 355–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tell, G. S., Crouse, J. R., & Furberg, C. D. (1988). Relation between blood lipids, lipoproteins, and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. A review. Stroke, 19(4), 423–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tomlinson, B. E., Blessed, G., & Roth, M. (1970). Observations on the brains of demented old people. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 11(3), 205–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tullberg, M., Fletcher, E., DeCarli, C., Mungas, D., Reed, B. R., Harvey, D. J., et al. (2004). White matter lesions impair frontal lobe function regardless of their location. Neurology, 63(2), 246–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Tupler, L. A., Krishnan, K. R., McDonald, W. M., Dombeck, C. B., D’Souza, S., & Steffens, D. C. (2002). Anatomic location and laterality of MRI signal hyperintensities in late-life depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(2), 665–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wang, L. N., Zhu, M. W., Gui, Q. P., & Li, X. H. (2003). An analysis of the causes of dementia in 383 elderly autopsied cases. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi, 42(11), 789–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Wetterling, T., Kanitz, R. D., & Borgis, K. J. (1993). Clinical evaluation of the ICD-10 criteria for vascular dementia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 243(1), 33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wetterling, T., Kanitz, R. D., & Borgis, K. J. (1996). Comparison of different diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (ADDTC, DSM-IV, ICD-10, NINDS-AIREN). Stroke, 27(1), 30–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. WHO. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  81. Wolf, P. A., D’Agostino, R. B., Belanger, A. J., & Kannel, W. B. (1991). Probability of stroke: a risk profile from the Framingham Study. Stroke, 22(3), 312–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wolfe, N., Linn, R., Babikian, V. L., Knoefel, J. E., & Albert, M. L. (1990). Frontal systems impairment following multiple lacunar infarcts. Archives of Neurology, 47(2), 129–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations