Neuropsychological Effects of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

  • Emily R. Lantz
  • Ronald M. Lazar


Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital vascular malformations, which can be located in any part of the brain (cortical, sub-cortical, dural, or brain stem). They are vascular anomalies which are made up of a complex tangle of abnormal veins and arteries that are missing a capillary bed (AVM Study Group, 1999; Stapf, Mohr, Pile-Spellman et al., 2001) and instead, artery and vein are connected by fistulas and characterized by “shunting” of blood from artery to vein (Bambakidis et al., 2001; Klimo, Rao, & Brockmeyer, 2007; O'Brien, Neyastani, Buckley, Chang, & Legiehn, 2006). This shunting mechanism causes hypertension within the AVM and in the draining vein (AVM Study Group, 1999; Iwama, Hayashida, Takahashi, Nagata, & Hashimoto, 2002; Loring, 1999) and hypotension in the surrounding and feeding vessels (AVM Study Group, 1999). The feeding arteries have high volume flow with low pressure, creating hypoperfusion in surrounding normal brain tissue with little...


Arteriovenous Malformation Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Interventional Neuroradiologist Brain AVMs Eloquent Cortex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alkadhi, H., Kollias, S. S., Crelier, G. R., Golay, X., Hepp-Reymond, M. C., & Valavanis, A. (2000). Plasticity of the human motor cortex in patients with arteriovenous malformations: a functional MR imaging study. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 21(8), 1423–1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. AVM Study Group (1999). Arteriovenous malformations of the brain in adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 340(23), 1812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, R. P., McCarter, R. J., & Porter, D. G. (2004). Improvement in cognitive function after right temporal arteriovenous malformation excision. British Journal of Neurosurgery, 18(5), 541–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bambakidis, N. C., Sunshine, J. L., Faulhaber, P. F., Tarr, R. W., Selman, W. R., & Ratcheson, R. A. (2001). Functional evaluation of arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgical Focus, 11(5), e2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, R. D., Jr., Wiebers, D. O., Forbes, G., O'Fallon, W. M., Piepgras, D. G., Marsh, W. R., et al. (1988). The natural history of unruptured intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 68(3), 352–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, R. D., Jr., Wiebers, D. O., & Forbes, G. S. (1990). Unruptured intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations: frequency of intracranial hemorrhage and relationship of lesions. Journal of Neurosurgery, 73(6), 859–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, R. D., Jr., Wiebers, D. O., Torner, J. C., & O'Fallon, W. M. (1996). Frequency of intracranial hemorrhage as a presenting symptom and subtype analysis: a population-based study of intracranial vascular malformations in Olmsted Country, Minnesota. Journal of Neurosurgery, 85(1), 29–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buklina, S. B. (2001). Memory impairment and deep brain structures. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 31(2), 171–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buklina, S. B. (2002). The unilateral spatial neglect phenomenon in patients with arteriovenous malformations of deep brain structures. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 32(6), 555–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burchiel, K. J., Clarke, H., Ojemann, G. A., Dacey, R. G., & Winn, H. R. (1989). Use of stimulation mapping and corticography in the excision of arteriovenous malformations in sensorimotor and language-related neocortex. Neurosurgery, 24(3), 322–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cannestra, A. F., Pouratian, N., Forage, J., Bookheimer, S. Y., Martin, N. A., & Toga, A. W. (2004). Functional magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging for dominant-hemisphere perisylvian arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery, 55(4), 804–812; discussion 812–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choi, J. H., & Mohr, J. P. (2005). Brain arteriovenous malformations in adults. Lancet Neurology, 4(5), 299–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cloft, H. J., Joseph, G. J., & Dion, J. E. (1999). Risk of cerebral angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral aneurysm, and arteriovenous malformation: a meta-analysis. Stroke, 30(2), 317–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diehl, R. R., Henkes, H., Nahser, H. C., Kuhne, D., & Berlit, P. (1994). Blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with arteriovenous malformations. A transcranial Doppler study. Stroke, 25(8), 1574–1580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Drake, C. G. (1979). Cerebral arteriovenous malformations: considerations for and experience with surgical treatment in 166 cases. Clinical Neurosurgery, 26, 145–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Duong, D. H., Young, W. L., Vang, M. C., Sciacca, R. R., Mast, H., Koennecke, H. C., et al. (1998). Feeding artery pressure and venous drainage pattern are primary determinants of hemorrhage from cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Stroke, 29(6), 1167–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Festa, J. R., Lazar, R. M., Marshall, R. S., Pile-Spellman, J., Chong, J. Y., & Duong, H. (2004). Dural arteriovenous fistula presents like an ischemic stroke. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 17(1), 50–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fitzsimmons, B. F., Marshall, R. S., Pile-Spellman, J., & Lazar, R. M. (2003). Neurobehavioral differences in superselective Wada testing with amobarbital versus lidocaine. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 24(7), 1456–1460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fogarty-Mack, P., Pile-Spellman, J., Hacein-Bey, L., Osipov, A., DeMeritt, J., Jackson, E. C., et al. (1996). The effect of arteriovenous malformations on the distribution of intracerebral arterial pressures. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 17(8), 1443–1449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Frishberg, B. M. (1994). The utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of headache in patients with normal neurologic examinations. Neurology, 44(7), 1191–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Frishberg, B. M. (1997). Neuroimaging in presumed primary headache disorders. Seminars in Neurology, 17(4), 373–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Furlan, A. J., Whisnant, J. P., & Elveback, L. R. (1979). The decreasing incidence of primary intracerebral hemorrhage: a population study. Annals of Neurology, 5(4), 367–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garrido, E., & Stein, B. (1978). Removal of an arteriovenous malformation from the basal ganglion. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 41(11), 992–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghossoub, M., Nataf, F., Merienne, L., Devaux, B., Turak, B., & Roux, F. X. (2001). Characteristics of headache associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurochirurgie, 47(2–3 Pt 2), 177–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodglass, H., & Kaplan, E. (1983). Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Philidelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  26. Graeb, D. A., & Dolman, C. L. (1986). Radiological and pathological aspects of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Case report. Journal of Neurosurgery, 64(6), 962–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graf, C. J., Perret, G. E., & Torner, J. C. (1983). Bleeding from cerebral arteriovenous malformations as part of their natural history. Journal of Neurosurgery, 58(3), 331–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gross, C. R., Kase, C. S., Mohr, J. P., Cunningham, S. C., & Baker, W. E. (1984). Stroke in south Alabama: incidence and diagnostic features – a population based study. Stroke, 15(2), 249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guo, W. Y., Lee, S. M., Chang, Y. C., & Pan, H. C. (2006). The impact of arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery on the brain: From morphology and perfusion to neurocognition. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, 84(4), 162–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hashimoto, H., Iida, J., Kawaguchi, S., & Sakaki, T. (2004). Clinical features and management of brain arteriovenous malformations in elderly patients. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien), 146(10), 1091–1098; discussion 1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hashimoto, T., Lawton, M. T., Wen, G., Yang, G. Y., Chaly, T., Jr., Stewart, C. L., et al. (2004). Gene microarray analysis of human brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery, 54(2), 410–423; discussion 423–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heros, R. C., Korosue, K., & Diebold, P. M. (1990). Surgical excision of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: late results. Neurosurgery, 26(4), 570–577; discussion 577–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hillman, J. (2001) Population-based analysis of arteriovenous malformation treatment. Journal of Neurosurgery, 95(4), 633–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hofmeister, C., Stapf, C., Hartmann, A., Sciacca, R. R., Mansmann, U., terBrugge, K., et al. (2000). Demographic, morphological, and clinical characteristics of 1289 patients with brain arteriovenous malformation. Stroke, 31(6), 1307–1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoh, B. L., Chapman, P. H., Loeffler, J. S., Carter, B. S., & Ogilvy, C. S. (2002). Results of multimodality treatment for 141 patients with brain arteriovenous malformations and seizures: factors associated with seizure incidence and seizure outcomes. Neurosurgery, 51(2), 303–309; discussion 309–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hurst, R. W., Bagley, L. J., Galetta, S., Glosser, G., Lieberman, A. P., Trojanowski, J., et al. (1998). Dementia resulting from dural arteriovenous fistulas: the pathologic findings of venous hypertensive encephalopathy. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 19(7), 1267–1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ito, M., Sonokawa, T., Mishina, H., & Sato, K. (1995). Reversible dural arteriovenous malformation-induced venous ischemia as a cause of dementia: treatment by surgical occlusion of draining dural sinus: case report. Neurosurgery, 37(6), 1187–1191; discussion 1191–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Iwama, T., Hayashida, K., Takahashi, J. C., Nagata, I., & Hashimoto, N. (2002). Cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: an evaluation using positron emission tomography scanning. Journal of Neurosurgery, 97(6), 1314–1321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klimo, P. Jr., Rao, G., & Brockmeyer, D. (2007). Pediatric arteriovenous malformations: a 15-year experience with an emphasis on residual and recurrent lesions. Child's Nervous System, 23(1), 31–37.Google Scholar
  40. Kloster, R. (1997). Subarachnoid hemorrhage in Vestfold county. Occurrence and prognosis. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 117(13), 1879–1882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kondziolka, D., McLaughlin, M.R. & Kestle, J.R. (1995). Simple risk predictions for arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage. Neurosurgery, 37(5), 851–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kumar, A. J., Fox, A. J., Vinuela, F., & Rosenbaum, A. E. (1984). Revisited old and new CT findings in unruptured larger arteriovenous malformations of the brain. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 8(4), 648–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kumar, K., Malik, S., & Demeria, D. (2002). Treatment of chronic pain with spinal cord stimulation versus alternative therapies: cost-effectiveness analysis. Neurosurgery, 51(1), 106–115; discussion 115–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kurl, S., Saari, T., Vanninen, R., & Hernesniemi, J. (1996). Dural arteriovenous fistulas of superior sagittal sinus: case report and review of literature. Surgical Neurology, 45(3), 250–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Langer, D. J., Lasner, T. M., Hurst, R. W., Flamm, E. S., Zager, E. L., & King, J. T., Jr. (1998). Hypertension, small size, and deep venous drainage are associated with risk of hemorrhagic presentation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery, 42(3), 481–486; discussion 487–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lazar, R. M., Connaire, K., Marshall, R. S., Pile-Spellman, J., Hacein-Bey, L., Solomon, R. A., et al. (1999). Developmental deficits in adult patients with arteriovenous malformations. Archives of Neurology, 56(1), 103–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lazar, R. M., Marshall, R. S., Pile-Spellman, J., Duong, H. C., Mohr, J. P., Young, W. L., et al. (2000). Interhemispheric transfer of language in patients with left frontal cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Neuropsychologia, 38(10), 1325–1332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lazar, R. M., Marshall, R. S., Pile-Spellman, J., Hacein-Bey, L., Young, W. L., Mohr, J. P., et al. (1997). Anterior translocation of language in patients with left cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Neurology, 49(3), 802–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lehericy, S., Biondi, A., Sourour, N., Vlaicu, M., du Montcel, S. T., Cohen, L., et al. (2002). Arteriovenous brain malformations: is functional MR imaging reliable for studying language reorganization in patients? Initial observations. Radiology, 223(3), 672–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Loring, D. W. (1999). INS dictionary of neuropsychology. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Lunsford, L. D., Kondziolka, D., Flickinger, J. C., Bissonette, D. J., Jungreis, C. A., Maitz, A. H., et al. (1991). Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the brain. Journal of Neurosurgery, 75(4), 512–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mahalick, D. M., Ruff, R. M., Heary, R. F., & U, H. S. (1993). Preoperative versus postoperative neuropsychological sequelae of arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery, 33(4), 563–570; discussion 570–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maldjian, J., Atlas, S. W., Howard, R. S., II, Greenstein, E., Alsop, D., Detre, J. A., et al. (1996). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of regional brain activity in patients with intracerebral arteriovenous malformations before surgical or endovascular therapy. Journal of Neurosurgery, 84(3), 477–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Malik, G. M., Seyfried, D. M., & Morgan, J. K. (1996). Temporal lobe arteriovenous malformations: surgical management and outcome. Surgical Neurology, 46(2), 106–114; discussion 114–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marshall, G. A., Jonker, B. P., Morgan, M. K., & Taylor, A. J. (2003). Prospective study of neuropsychological and psychosocial outcome following surgical excision of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Clin Neurosci, 10(1), 42-47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mast, H., Mohr, J. P., Osipov, A., Pile-Spellman, J., Marshall, R. S., Lazar, R. M., et al. (1995). 'Steal' is an unestablished mechanism for the clinical presentation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Stroke, 26(7), 1215–1220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mast, H., Young, W. L., Koennecke, H. C., Sciacca, R. R., Osipov, A., Pile-Spellman, J., et al. (1997). Risk of spontaneous haemorrhage after diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Lancet, 350(9084), 1065–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Matsuda, S., Waragai, M., Shinotoh, H., Takahashi, N., Takagi, K., & Hattori, T. (1999). Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presenting progressive dementia and parkinsonism. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 165(1), 43–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McCormick, W. (1978). Classification, pathology, and natural history of the central nervous system. Neurological Neurosurgery, 14, 2–7.Google Scholar
  60. McCormick, W. F. (1966). The pathology of vascular (“arteriovenous”) malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 24(4), 807–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McCormick, W. F., & Rosenfield, D. B. (1973). Massive brain hemorrhage: a review of 144 cases and an examination of their causes. Stroke, 4(6), 946–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meisel, H. J., Mansmann, U., Alvarez, H., Rodesch, G., Brock, M., & Lasjaunias, P. (2000). Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and associated aneurysms: analysis of 305 cases from a series of 662 patients. Neurosurgery, 46(4), 793–800; discussion 800–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mohr, J. H., A., Mast, H., Pile-Spellman, J., Schumacher, H. C. & Stapf, C. (2004). Anteriovenous malformations and other vascular anomalies. In J. P. C. Mohr, D.W.; Grotta J.C.; Weir B., & Wolf P.A. (Eds.), Stroke pathophysiology, diagnosis and management (pp. 397–421). Philidelphia: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  64. Murphy, J. (1954). Vascular tumors: Arteriovenous malformations of the brain. In Mohr J. P (Ed.), Cerebrovascular Disease (pp. 242–262). Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. Nagata, S., Morioka, T., Matsukado, K., Natori, Y., & Sasaki, T. (2006). Retrospective analysis of the surgically treated temporal lobe arteriovenous malformations with focus on the visual field defects and epilepsy. Surgical Neurology, 66(1), 50–55; discussion 55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Newton, T. H., & Cronqvist, S. (1969). Involvement of dural arteries in intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Radiology, 93(5), 1071–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. O'Brien, P., Neyastani, A., Buckley, A. R., Chang, S. D., & Legiehn, G. M. (2006). Uterine arteriovenous malformations: from diagnosis to treatment. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 25(11), 1387–1392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Ogilvy, C. S. (1990). Radiation therapy for arteriovenous malformations: a review. Neurosurgery, 26(5), 725–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ogilvy, C. S., Stieg, P. E., Awad, I., Brown, R. D., Jr., Kondziolka, D., Rosenwasser, R., et al. (2001). AHA Scientific Statement: Recommendations for the management of intracranial arteriovenous malformations: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Stroke Association. Stroke, 32(6), 1458–1471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ondra, S. L., Troupp, H., George, E. D., & Schwab, K. (1990). The natural history of symptomatic arteriovenous malformations of the brain: a 24-year follow-up assessment. Journal of Neurosurgery, 73(3), 387–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pawlikowska, L., Tran, M. N., Achrol, A. S., McCulloch, C. E., Ha, C., Lind, D. L., et al. (2004). Polymorphisms in genes involved in inflammatory and angiogenic pathways and the risk of hemorrhagic presentation of brain arteriovenous malformations. Stroke, 35(10), 2294–2300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Perret, G., & Nishioka, H. (1966). Report on the cooperative study of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Section VI. Arteriovenous malformations. An analysis of 545 cases of cranio-cerebral arteriovenous malformations and fistulae reported to the cooperative study. Journal of Neurosurgery, 25(4), 467–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Piepgras, D. G., Sundt, T. M., Jr., Ragoowansi, A. T., & Stevens, L. (1993). Seizure outcome in patients with surgically treated cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 78(1), 5–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Redekop, G., TerBrugge, K., Montanera, W., & Willinsky, R. (1998). Arterial aneurysms associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: classification, incidence, and risk of hemorrhage. Journal of Neurosurgery, 89(4), 539–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Richling, B., Killer, M., Al-Schameri, A. R., Ritter, L., Agic, R., & Krenn, M. (2006). Therapy of brain arteriovenous malformations: multimodality treatment from a balanced standpoint. Neurosurgery, 59(5 Suppl 3), S148–S157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Riina, H. A., & Gobin, Y. P. (2001). Grading and surgical planning for intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgical Focus, 11(5), e3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ruiz-Sandoval, J. L., Cantu, C., & Barinagarrementeria, F. (1999). Intracerebral hemorrhage in young people: analysis of risk factors, location, causes, and prognosis. Stroke, 30(3), 537-541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Spetzler, R. F., Hargraves, R. W., McCormick, P. W., Zabramski, J. M., Flom, R. A., & Zimmerman, R. S. (1992). Relationship of perfusion pressure and size to risk of hemorrhage from arteriovenous malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 76(6), 918–923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Spetzler, R. F., Martin, N. A., Carter L. P., Flom, R. A., Raudzens, P. A., & Wilkinson, E. (1987). Surgical management of large AVM’s by staged embolization and operative excision. Journal of Neurosurgery, 67(1), 17–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Spetzler, R. F., & Martin, N. A. (1986). A proposed grading system for arteriovenous malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 65(4), 476–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. St George, E. J., Butler, P., & Plowman, P. N. (2002). Can magnetic resonance imaging alone accurately define the arteriovenous nidus for gamma knife radiosurgery? Journal of Neurosurgery, 97(5 Suppl), 464–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Stabell, K. E., & Nornes, H. (1994). Prospective neuropsychological investigation of patients with supratentorial arteriovenous malformations. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien), 131(1–2), 32–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stapf, C., Mast, H., Sciacca, R. R., Choi, J. H., Khaw, A. V., Connolly, E. S., et al. (2006a). Predictors of hemorrhage in patients with untreated brain arteriovenous malformation. Neurology, 66(9), 1350–1355.Google Scholar
  84. Stapf, C., Mohr, J. P., Choi, J. H., Hartmann, A., & Mast, H. (2006b). Invasive treatment of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations is experimental therapy. Current Opinion in Neurology, 19(1), 63–68.Google Scholar
  85. Stapf, C., Mohr, J. P., Pile-Spellman, J., Solomon, R. A., Sacco, R. L., & Connolly, E. S., Jr. (2001). Epidemiology and natural history of arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery Focus, 11(5), e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Steiner, L., & Lindquist, C. (1987). Radiosurgery in cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Philidelphia: Hanley and Belfus, Inc.Google Scholar
  87. Steinvorth, S., Wenz, F., Wildermuth, S., Essig, M., Fuss, M., Lohr, F., et al. (2002). Cognitive function in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery: prospective long-term follow-up. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 54(5), 1430–1437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Takemori, A. E. (1992). Opioid pharmacology a'la mode. NIDA Research Monograph, 119, 21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Tanaka, K., Morooka, Y., Nakagawa, Y., & Shimizu, S. (1999). Dural arteriovenous malformation manifesting as dementia due to ischemia in bilateral thalami. A case report. Surgical Neurology, 51(5), 489–493; discussion 493–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Turjman, F., Massoud, T. F., Sayre, J. W., Vinuela, F., Guglielmi, G., & Duckwiler, G. (1995). Epilepsy associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a multivariate analysis of angioarchitectural characteristics. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 16(2), 345–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Tyler, J. L., Leblanc, R., Meyer, E., Dagher, A., Yamamoto, Y. L., Diksic, M., & Hakim, A. (1989). Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of cerebral arteriovenous malformations studied by positron emission tomography. Stroke, 20(7), 890–898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Unla, E., Teminzoz, O., Abayram, S., Genchellac, H., Hamamcioglu, M. K., Kurt, I., et al. (2006). Contrast-enhanced MR 3D angiography in the assessment of brain AVMs. European Journal of Radiology, 60 (3), 367–378.Google Scholar
  93. Van Roost, D., & Schramm, J. (2001). What factors are related to impairment of cerebrovascular reserve before and after arteriovenous malformation resection? A cerebral blood flow study using xenon-enhanced computed tomography. Neurosurgery, 48(4), 709–716; discussion 716–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Warren, D. J., Hoggard, N., Walton, L., Radatz, M. W., Kemeny, A. A., Forster, D. M., et al. (2001). Cerebral arteriovenous malformations: comparison of novel magnetic resonance angiographic techniques and conventional catheter angiography. Neurosurgery, 48(5), 973–982; discussion 982–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wechsler, D. (1987). Weschler Memory Scale: revised manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  96. Wenz, F., Steinvorth, S., Wildermuth, S., Lohr, F., Fuss, M., Debus, J., et al. (1998). Assessment of neuropsychological changes in patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after radiosurgery. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 42(5), 995–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Whigham, K. B., & O'Toole, K. (2007). Understanding the neuropsychologic outcome of pediatric AVM within a neurodevelopmental framework. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 20(4), 244–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yamada, S., Liwnicz, B., Lonser, R. R., & Knierim, D. (1999). Scanning electron microscopy of arteriovenous malformations. Neurology Research, 21(6), 541–544.Google Scholar
  99. Yeh, H. S., Tew, J. M. & Gartner, M. (1993). Seizure control after surgery on arteriovenous malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 78(1), 12–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zeidman, S. M., Monsein, L. H., Arosarena, O., Aletich, V., Biafore, J. A., Dawson, R. C., et al. (1995). Reversibility of white matter changes and dementia after treatment of dural fistulas. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 16(5), 1080–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurological InstituteNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations