Culture and Collective Violence: How Good People, Usually Men, do Bad Things

  • Michael Harris Bond


Cultural System Moral Disengagement Social Dominance Orientation Intergroup Relation Mortality Salience 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altemeyer, B. (1988). Enemies of freedom: Understanding right-wing authoritarianism. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  2. Archer, J. (2006). Cross-cultural differences in physical aggression between partners: A social-structural analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 133–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baha’i International Community (1999). Who is writing the future? Reflections on the twentieth century. Haifa, Israel: Baha’i International Community.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, P. (2004). Critical mass: How one thing leads to another. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities [Special issue]. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 193–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (2001). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Campbell, W. K. (1999). The intrinsic appeal of evil: Sadism, sensational thrills, and threatened egotism. Personality and Social Psychology Review 3, 210–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker, E. (1973). The denial of death. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  9. Berger, P. L. (1967a). The sacred canopy: Elements of a sociological theory of religion. New York: Anchor.Google Scholar
  10. Berger, P. L. (1967b). A rumour of angels. Harmondsworth: PenguinGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  12. Berry, J. W., & Kalin, R. (1995). Multicultural and ethnic attitudes in Canada: An overview of the 1991 national survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 27, 301–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bond, M. H. (1999). Unity in diversity: Orientations and strategies for building a harmonious, multicultural society. In J. Adamopoulos & Y. Kashima (Eds.), Social psychology and cultural context(pp. 17–39). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Bond, M. H. (2004). Culture and aggression – from context to coercion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 62–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bond, R., & Smith, P. B. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch’s (1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 111–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. E. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory of research for the sociology of education(pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  17. Browning, C. R. (1993). Ordinary men. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  18. Caprara, G.-V., Barbaranelli, C., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1996). Understanding the complexity of human aggression: Affective, cognitive, and social dimensions of individual differences in propensity toward aggression. European Journal of Personality, 10, 133–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clague, C., Gleason, S., & Knack, S. (2001). Determinants of lasting democracies in poor countries: Culture, development and institutions. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 573, 16–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen, T. R., Montoya, M. R., & Insko, C. A. (2006). Group morality and intergroup relations: Experimental and cross-cultural evidence. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  21. Conrad, J. (1900). Lord Jim: A romance. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  22. Conway, L. G., Sexton, S. M., & Tweed, R. G. (2006). Collectivism and governmentally initiated restrictions: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis across nations and within a nation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 20-41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Danner, M. (1994). The massacre at El Mazote. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  24. Der-Karabetian, A. (1992). World-mindedness and the nuclear threat: A multinational study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 293–308.Google Scholar
  25. Diener, E., & Tov, W. (2007). Culture and subjective well-being. In S. Kitayama & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of cultural psychology. New York, NY: Guilford blications, Inc.Google Scholar
  26. Donne, J. (1950). John Donne: A selection of his poetry. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin.Google Scholar
  27. Dutton, D. G., Boyanowsky, E. O., & Bond, M. H. (2005). Extreme mass homicide: From military massacre to genocide. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 437–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (1994). War, socialization, and interpersonal violence: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 38, 620–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feest, J., & Blankenburg, E. (Eds.) (1997). Changing legal cultures. Onati, Spain: International Institute for the Sociology of Law.Google Scholar
  30. Fein, H. (1979). Accounting for genocide: National responses and Jewish victimization during the holocaust. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  31. Garner, R. (1997). Social movement theory and research: An annotated bibliographic guide. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gladwell, M. (2000). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. London: Little, Brown and Co.Google Scholar
  33. Golding, W. (1962). Lord of the flies. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  34. Grossman, D. (1995). On killing: The psychological cost of learning to kill in war and society. New York: Little Brown and Co.Google Scholar
  35. Gudykunst, W. B., & Bond, M. H. (1997). Intergroup relations across cultures. In J. Berry, M. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology(Vol. 3, pp. 119–161). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  36. Hagan, J., Rippl. S., Boehnke, K., & Merkens, H. (1999). The interest in evil: Hierarchic self-interest and right-wing extremism among East and West German youth. Social Science Research, 28, 162–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hazani, M. (1993). Sacrificial immortality: Toward a theory of suicidal terrorism and related phenomena. In L. B. Boyer, R. M. Boyer, & S. M. Sonnenberg (Eds.), The psychoanalytic study of society (pp. 415–442). Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Heimer, K., & De Coster, S. (1999). The gendering of violent delinquency. Criminology, 37, 277–317.Google Scholar
  39. Hofstede, G. (1986). Cultural differences in teaching and learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 301–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Human Security Center, Human Security Report, 2005 (available from Scholar
  41. Humana, C. (1992) World human rights guide (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Jahoda, G. (2002). On the origins of antagonism towards “The Others”. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, 127, 1–16.Google Scholar
  43. Jost, J. T., & Hunyady, O. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of system-justifying ideologies. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 260–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kelman, H. C. (1961). Processes of opinion change. Public Opinion Quarterly, 25, 57–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leung, K., & Bond, M. H. (2004). Social axioms: A model for social beliefs in multicultural perspective. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 36, pp. 119–197). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. Liht, J., & Conway, L. G. (2005). Religious fundamentalism: An empirically derived construct and multi-religion measurement scale. Paper presented at the 28th Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Toronto, Canada, July.Google Scholar
  47. Lim, F., & Bond, M. H. (2003). The gender ratio in the perpetration of homicide: Explaining differences across 70 nations. Unpublished manuscript, Chinese University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  48. Mao, Z. (1960). Selected works of Mao Tse-Tung(Vol. 1). Peking: Foreign Language Press.Google Scholar
  49. Muller, E. N., & Weede, E. (1990). Cross-national variation in plitical violence: A rational action approach. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 34, 624–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Murphy, C., & Vess, J. (2003). Subtypes of psychopathy: Proposed differences between narcissistic, borderline, sadistic and antisocial psychopaths. Psychiatric Quarterly, 74, 11–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nathan, A. (2005). Plastic and jade: A review of Mao: The Unknown Storyby Jung Chang and Jon Halliday. London Review of Books, November 17.Google Scholar
  52. Nell, V. (2006). Cruelty’s rewards: The gratifications of perpetrators and spectators. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 211–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Newman, L. S., & Erber, R. (2002). Epilogue: Social psychologists confront the holocaust. In L. S. Newman & R. Erber (Eds.), Understanding genocide: The social psychology of the Holocaust (pp. 325–345). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Olmo, del R. (1975). Limitations for the prevention of violence: The Latin American reality and its criminological theory. Crime and Social Justice, 3, 21-29.Google Scholar
  55. Osgood, C. E., May, W. H., & Miron, M. S. (1975). Cross-cultural universals of affective meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  56. Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  57. Oyserman, D., & Lauffer, A. (2002). Examining the implications of cultural frames on social movements and group action. In L. S. Newman & R. Erber (Eds.), Understanding genocide: The social psychology of the Holocaust (pp. 162–187). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Pinker, S. (2002). The blank slate: The modern denial of human nature. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  59. Power, S. (2002). Genocide and U.S. foreign policy: A conversation with Samantha Power by Henry Kreisler, April 29. ( Scholar
  60. Raine, A., Mellingen, K., Liu, J., Venables, P., & Mednick, S. A. (2003). Effects of environmental enrichment at ages 3–5 years on schizotypal personality and antisocial behavior at ages 17 and 23 years. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1627–1635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Robertson, G. (2002). Crimes against humanity: The struggle for global justice (2nd ed.). London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  62. Rummel, R. J. (1988). Political systems, violence, and war. Paper presented at the United States Institute of Peace Conference, Airlie House, Airlie, Virginia, June. (available on the web: Scholar
  63. Rummel, R. J. (1991). China’s bloody century: Genocide and mass murder since 1900. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  64. Sampson, D. L., & Smith, H. P. (1957). A scale to measure world-minded attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Santayana, G. (1905). The life of reason(Vol. 1). New York: Scribners.Google Scholar
  66. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). The universal content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (vol. 25, pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism and collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, Ç. KaShakespeare, W. (1949). Julius Caesar. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university Press.Google Scholar
  68. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Smith, P. B. (2004). Acquiescent response bias as an aspect of cultural communication style. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Smith, P. B., Bond, M. H., & Kagitcibasi, C. (2006). Understanding social psychology across cultures. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  71. Soeters, J. L. (1996). Culture and conflict: An application of Hofstede’s theory to the conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 2, 233-244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stanton, G. (2004). Twelve ways to deny a genocide. Speech available from Scholar
  73. Staub, E. (1988). The evolution of caring and nonaggressive persons and societies. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Staub, E. (1999). Predicting collective violence: The psychological and cultural roots of turning against others. In C. Summers & E. Markusen, (Eds.), Collective violence: Harmful behavior in groups and governments (pp. 195–209). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  75. Staub, E. (2002). The psychology of bystanders, perpetrators, and heroic helpers. In L. S. Newman & R. Erber (Eds.), Understanding genocide: The social psychology of the Holocaust (pp. 11–42). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. XX–UU). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  77. Suedfeld, P. (2001). Theories of the Holocaust: Trying to explain the unimaginable In D. Chirot & M. E. Seligman (Eds.), Ethnopolitical warfare: Causes, consequences and possible solutions (pp. 51–70). Washington, DC: APA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Suedfield, P., & Schaller, M. (2002). Authoritarianism and the Holocaust: Some cognitive and affective implications. In L. S. Newman & R. Erber (Eds.), Understanding genocide: The social psychology of the Holocaust (pp. 68–90). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Sullivan, J. L., & Transue, J. E. (1999). The psychological underpinnings of democracy: A selected review of research on political tolerance, interpersonal trust, and social capital. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 625-650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trapnell, P. D. (1994). Openness versus intellect: A lexical left turn. European Journal of Personality, 8, 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Verhulst, F. C., Achenbach, T. M., Ende, J. V. D., Lambert, M. C., Leung, P. W. L., Silva, M. A., et al. (2003). Comparisons of problems reported by youths from seven countries. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1479–1485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wilkinson, R. G., Kawachi, I., & Kennedy, B. P. (1998). Mortality, the social environment, crime and violence. Sociology of Health and Illness, 20, 578 - 597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Williams, J., & Best, D. (1990). Sex and psyche: Gender and self viewed cross-culturally. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  84. Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Wood, W., & Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. World Health Organization (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Publications (available on line at: Scholar
  87. Yang, K. S. (1988). Will societal modernization eventually eliminate cross-cultural psychological differences? In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The cross-cultural challenge to social psychology (pp. 67–85). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Harris Bond

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations