Advertisement

Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes

  • Carl Erik Mogensen

Editorials in major journals may provide an important review of opinion regarding diabetes and pharmacotherapy of diabetes as well as the nature of treatment. Many years ago Siperstein argued against support of rigid glycemic control. According to Siperstein [1, 2] most studies on better glycemic control were inconclusive. This left the clinicians with the impression that complications were related to genetic patterns and not to the phenotypic risk factors occurring with diabetes. Later he argued that the muscle capillary basement membrane could be influenced by the level of blood glucose, but whether this was related also to other organs such as the kidney and the retina was in doubt, thus arguing against results in the important work of Østerby. I believe that this really influenced the clinical practice in the USA for many years.

Keywords

Glycemic Control Diabetic Nephropathy Islet Transplantation Pancreas Transplantation United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Siperstein MD, Foster DW, Knowles HC. Control of blood glucose and diabetic vascular disease. N Engl J Med 1977;296(1):1060–1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siperstein MD. Diabetic microangiopathy and the control of blood glucose. N Engl J Med 1983;309:1577–1579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gerich JF. Role of growth hormone in diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1984;310(13):848–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fathman CG, Myers BD. Cyclosporine therapy for autoimmune disease. N Engl J Med 1992; 327(4):271–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gale EAM. Can we change the course of beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes? N Engl J Med 2002;346:1740–1741.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lasker RD. The diabetes control and complications trial – implications for policy and practice. New Engl J Med 1993;329:1035–1036.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    William T and Cefalu MD. Glycemic control and cardiovascular disease – should we reassess clinical goals? New Engl J Med 2005;353:2707–2709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mogensen CE. Combined high blood pressure and glucose in type 2 diabetes: double jeopardy. British trials show clear effects of treatment, especially blood pressure reduction. Br Med J; 1998; 317:693–694.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Remuzzi G. Slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1496–1497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Viberti CG. A glycemic threshold for diabetic complications? N Engl J Med 1995;332:1293–1294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parving H-H. Initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1682–1683.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Crofford OB. Metformin. N Engl J Med 1995;333:588–589.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Imura H. A novel antidiabetic drug – troglitazone – reason for hope and concern. N Engl J Med 1998;338:908–909.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Luzi L. Pancreas Transplantation and diabetic complications. N Engl J Med 1998;339:115–117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robertson RP. Successful islet transplantation for patients with diabetes – fact or fantasy? N Engl J Med 2000;343:289–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bakris GL. Antihypertensive therapy and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2000;342:969–970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ingelfinger JR, Solomon CG. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors for impaired glucose tolerance – is there still hope? N Engl J Med 355:1608–1610.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jamerson KH, Bakris GL, Wun CC. Rationale and design of the avoiding cardiovascular events through combination therapy in patients living with systolic hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial. Am J Hypertens 2004;17:793–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hostetter TH. Prevention of end-stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2001;345:910–911.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mitch WE. Treating diabetic nephropathy is – are there only economic issues. N Engl J Med 2004;35348:1934–1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ritz E. Albuminuria and vascular damage – the vicious twins. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2349–2351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Solomon CG. Reducing cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003;348:457–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yki-Järvinen H. The PROactive study: some answers, many questions. The Lancet 2005;366:1241–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nathan DM. Thiazolidinediones for initial treatment of type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2006;355:2477–2480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nathan DM. Finding new treatments for diabetes – how many, how fast… how good? N Engl J Med 356:437–440.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berry C, Tardif JC, Bourassa MG. Coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes. part 1: recent advances in prevention and noninvasive management. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:631–642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Berry C, Tardif JC, Bourassa MG. Coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes. part ii: recent advances in coronary revascularization. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:643–656.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Short R. Fracture risk is a class effect of glitazones. Br Med J 2007;334:551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nissen SE, Wolski K. Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 2007;356:xx–xx.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Singh S, Loke YK, Furberg CD. Thiazolidinediones and Heart Failure: A Teleo-Analysis. Diabetes Care 2007; DOI:10.2337/dc07–0141.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Home PD, Pocock SJ, Beck-Nielsen H, et al. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes – an interim analysis. N Engl J Med 2007;DOI:0.1056/NEJMoa073394.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl Erik Mogensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical DepartmentAarhus University HospitalDenmark

Personalised recommendations