The use of the stable vibrations of a quartz crystal to control clocks and watches has become so common in recent years that in this age of digital sophistication, we tend to take for granted the revolutionary advance these quartz-controlled time pieces represent. It is true that through the incomparable skill and ingenuity of Swiss watchmakers, the precision achieved in the fabrication and hence performance of mechanical watches has reached truly admirable heights; however, the microelectronic revolution of the 1960s has made it possible to miniaturize the far superior crystal-controlled clock into a wrist watch of greater constancy at a fraction of the cost.
KeywordsLight Emit Diode Quartz Crystal Audio Signal Phase Lock Loop Voltage Control Oscillator
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