We will now consider specific lasers that typify each of several important classes. Historically, the now ubiquitous helium-neon laser occupies a special place after the ruby laser, as the first gas laser to implement the emerging ideas on how to extend the concept of a maser oscillator to optical frequencies, ideas associated mainly with the names of Townes, Schawlow, and Basov.
KeywordsLight Emit Diode Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Helium Atom Population Inversion Lower Laser Level
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