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The Confinement of Particles in Fields

  • F. G. Major

The development of atomic standards based on quantum resonance in neutral atoms confined by diffusion through a buffer gas, or collisions with inert walls, culminated in the hydrogen maser, a standard of astonishingly high stability. However, as explained in the last chapter, for certain applications the hydrogen maser suffers from two deficiencies: First, its lack of portability due to its size and the need for elaborate magnetic shielding, and second, a wall shift that limits its absolute accuracy, and disqualifies it as a primary standard.

Keywords

Frequency Standard Laser Cool Equipotential Surface Paul Trap Mathieu Equation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. G. Major
    • 1
  1. 1.USA

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