Advertisement

Measuring the AC Response of SWNT-FETs

  • Islamshah Amlani
Chapter
Part of the Integrated Circuits and Systems book series (ICIR)

Introduction

SWNT-FETs are considered promising candidates for high-frequency applications with a predicted frequency response in the terahertz regime [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. The main reason for this anticipation is the ballistic transport in the channel over several hundred nanometers at room temperature leading to higher transconductance and mobility values compared to any other material. Significant progress has been made in understanding the DC properties of SWNT-FETs. Despite tremendous interest in the AC properties as well, a full RF characterization of SWNT-FETs have proved challenging to date.

The typical approach for RF and microwave characterization of any two-port system (including SWNT-FETs in common source (CS) or common gate (CG) configuration) requires measurement of the scattering parameters commonly referred to as S parameters. The 2×2 S matrix includes the reflection and transmission parameters at the input port (S11 and S12) and the output port (S22 and S21). Some of the...

Keywords

Frequency Response Function Parasitic Capacitance Device Under Test Back Gate Common Gate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author would like to acknowledge collaborators, King Lee, Steve Rockwell and Ruth Zhang of Motorola, Dan Woodward of Tektronix, and Philip Wong and Jie Deng of Stanford University. The author would also like to thank Digital Realization Research Lab of Motorola for assistance in sample fabrication and characterization. The author would like to extend appreciation to Rudy Emrick and Vida Ilderem for their support of this work.

References

  1. 1.
    K. Alam and R. Lake, “Performance of 2 nm gate length carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with source/drain underlaps,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 87, p. 073104-1-3, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. J. Burke, “AC performance of nanoelectronics: towards a ballistic THz nanotube transistor,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 48, pp. 1981–1986, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. C. Castro, D. L. John, D. L. Pulfrey, M. Pourfath, A. Gehring, and H. Kosina, “Method for predicting fT for Carbon Nanotube FETs,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 4, pp. 699–704, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Hasan, S. Salahuddin, M. Vaidyanathan, and A. A. Alam, “High-frequency performance projections for ballistic carbon-nanotube transistors,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 5, pp. 14–22, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Guo, S. Hasan, A. Javey, G. Bosman, and M. Lundstrom, “Assessment of high-frequency performance potential of carbon nanotube transistors,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 4, pp. 715–721, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The RF and Microwave Handbook, edited by Muike Golio (CRC Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z. Chen, J. Appenzeller, Y. Lin, J. S-Oakley, A. G. Rinzler, J. Tang, S. J. Wind, P. M. Solomon, and P. Avouris, Science, vol. 311, pp. 1735–1737, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Appenzeller and D. J. Frank, “Frequency dependent characterization of transport properties in carbon nanotube transistors,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 84, pp. 1771–1773, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. J. Frank and J. Appenzeller, “High-frequency response in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 25, pp. 34–36, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. D. Li, Z. Yu, S. F. Yen, W. C. Tang, and P. J. Burke, “Carbon nanotube transistor operation at 2.6 GHz,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, pp. 753–756, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    X. Huo, M. Zhang, P. C. H. Chan, Q. Liang, and Z. K. Tang, “High-frequency S parameters characterization of back-gate carbon nantoube field-effect transistors,” IEDM Technical Digest, San Francisco, CA, pp. 691–694, 2004.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Singh, K. Jenkins, and J. Appenzeller, “Direct measurements of frequency response of carbon nanotube field effect transistors,” Electronics Letters, vol. 41, pp. 280–281, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Singh, K. Jenkins, J. Appenzeller, D. Neumayer, A. Grill, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Frequency response of top-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 383–387, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Rosenblatt, H. Lin, V. Sazonova, S. Tiwari, and P. L. McEuen, “Mixing at 50 GHz using a single-walled carbon nanotube transistor,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 87, p. 153111, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aaron A. Pesetski, J. E. Baumgardner, E. Folk, J. X. Przybysz, J. D. Adam, and H. Zhang, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, p. 113103, 2006.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    I. Amlani, R. Zhang, J. Lewis, J. Deng, H.-S. P. Wong, and K. Lee, “First demonstration of AC gain from a nanotube based common-source amplifier,” IEDM Technical Digest, San Francisco, CA, pp. 559–562, 2006.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    I. Amlani, J. Lewis, R. Zg, K. Nordquist, S. Rockwell, and D. Woodward, “Approach to variable frequency measurements of carbon nanotube transistor,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 24, pp. 3209–3212, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    RF Measurements of Die and Packages, edited by S. A. Wartenberg (Artech house, Boston, 2002).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    I. Amlani, R. Zhang, J. Tresek, and R. K. Tsui, “Field-effect and single-electron transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes catalyzed by Ni-Al thin films,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 202–210, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Javey, J. Guo, Q. Wang, M. Lundstrom, and H. Dai, “Ballistic carbon nanotube field effect transistors,” Nature, vol. 424, pp. 654–657, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tektronix notes, “Fundamentals of Signal Integrity” (2005).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Deng and H.-S. P. Wong, “A compact SPICE model for carbon nanotube field effect transistors including non-idealities and its application — Part I: Model of the intrinsic channel region,” Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2007.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Deng and H.-S. P. Wong, “A compact SPICE model for carbon nanotube field effect transistors including non-idealities and its application — Part II: Full device model and circuit performance benchmarking,” Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2007.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. A. Fjeldly, T. Ytterdal, M. S. Shur, Introduction to Device Modeling and Circuit Simulation (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1998).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jon Marten, IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium Workshop, presentation entitled, “High Impedance S-parameter Measurements,” San Diego CA, January 17–19, 2006.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Javey, J. Guo, D.B. Farmer, Q. Wang, E. Yenilmez, R. G. Gordon, M. Lundstrom, and H. Dai, “Self-aligned ballistic molecular transistors and electrically parallel nanotube arrays,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, pp. 1319–1322, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Guo, S. Hasan, A. Javey, G. Bosmon, and M. Lundstrom, “Assessment of high-frequency performance potential for carbon nanotube transistors,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 4, pp. 715–721, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Akinwande, G.F. Close, and H.-S.P. Wong, “Analysis of the frequency response of carbon nanotube transistors,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 5, pp. 599–605, 2006.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. J. Kang, C. Kpcabas, T. Ozel, M. Shim, N. Pimparkar, M. A. Alam, S. V. Rotkin, and J. A. Rogers, “High-performance electronics using dense, perfectly aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2, pp. 230–236, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Le Louarn, F. Kapche, J.-M. Bethoux, H. Happy, G. Dambrine, V. Derycke, P. Chenevier, N. Izard, M. F. Goffman, and J.-P. Bourgoin, “Intrinsic current gain cutoff frequency of 30 GHz with carbon nanotube transistors,” Applied Physics Letters vol. 90, p. 233108(3), 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Islamshah Amlani
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical and Digital Realization Research, Motorola Labs, MotorolaTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations