Advertisement

Basic Foundations of Diagnosis, Psychiatric Diagnosis and Final Common Pathway Syndromes

  • Hoyle Leigh

This chapter discusses the basic theoretical and neuroscience foundations of psychiatric syndromes and the diagnostic process. These foundations help in understanding the application of psychiatric diagnosis in the consultationliaison setting.

Keywords

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Psychiatric Diagnosis Serotonin Transporter Parahippocampal Gyrus Final Common Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.Google Scholar
  2. Baddeley A. Working memory and language: an overview. J Commun Disord. 2003 May–Jun;36(3):189–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes TD, Kubota Y, Hu D, Jin DZ, Graybiel AM. Activity of striatal neurons reflects dynamic encoding and recoding of procedural memories. Nature 2005;437(7062):1158–1161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The Serotonin Syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005;352(11):1112–1220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bozarth MA. Ventral tegmental reward system. In: Oreland L, Engel J, eds. Brain Reward Systems and Abuse. New York: Raven Press, 1987:1–17.Google Scholar
  6. Carey PD, Warwick J, Niehaus DJ, et al. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of anxiety disorders before and after treatment with citalopram. BMC Psychiatry 2004;4:30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 2002;297:851–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE, Taylor A, Craig IW, Harrington H, McClay J, Mill J, Martin J, Braithwaite A, Poulton R. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science. 2003 Jul 18;301(5631):386–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charney DS, Deutch A. A functional neuroanatomy of anxiety and fear: implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1996;10 (3–4):419–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Epel ES, Blackburn EH, Lin J, et al. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101(49):17312–17315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eysenck HJ. Biological dimensions of personality. In: Pervin LA, ed. Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford, 1990.Google Scholar
  12. Feighner JP, Robins E, Guze SB, Woodruff RA Jr, Winokur G, Munoz R. Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972;26(1):57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fellows LK, Farah MJ. Ventromedial frontal cortex mediates affective shifting in humans: evidence from a reversal learning paradigm. Brain 2003;126(8):1830–1837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Graybiel AM, Rauch SL. toward a neurobiology review of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuron 2000;28:343–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldapple K, Segal Z, Garson C, et al. Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61:34–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grady CL, Keightley ML. Studies of altered social cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders using functional neuroimaging. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47(4):327–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamann S. Blue genes: wiring the brain for depression. Nat Neurosci 2005;8(6):701–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hu S, Brody CL, Fisher C, et al. Interaction between the serotonin transporter gene and neuroticism in cigarette smoking behavior. Mol Psychiatry 2000;5(2):181–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jann MW. Implications for atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: neurocognition effects and a neuroprotective hypothesis. Pharmacotherapy 2004;24(12):1759–1783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lerman C, Caporaso NE, Audrain J, Main D, Boyd NR, Shields PG. Interacting effects of the serotonin transporter gene and neuroticism in smoking practices and nicotine dependence. Mol Psychiatry 2000;5(2):189–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lotrich FE, Pollock BG. Meta-analysis of serotonin transporter polymorphisms and affective disorders. Psychiatr Genet 2004;14:121–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McCarthy MM, McDonald CH, Brooks PJ, Goldman D. An anxiolytic action of oxytocin is enhanced by estrogen in the mouse. Physiol Behav 1996;60:1209–1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McGuire PK, Bench CJ, Frith CD, Marks IM, Frackowiak RS, Dolan RJ. Functional anatomy of obsessive-compulsive phenomena. Br J Psychiatry 1994 Apr;164(4): 459–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Munafo MR, Clark TG, Roberts KH, Johnstone EC. Neuroticism mediates the association of the serotonin transporter gene with lifetime major depression. Neuropsychobiology 2005;53(1):1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Murphy DL, Lerner A, Rudnick G, Lesch KP. Serotonin transporter: gene, genetic disorders, and pharmacogenetics. Mol Intervent 2004a;4(2):109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murphy GM Jr, Hollander SB, Rodrigues HE, Kremer C, Schatzberg AF. Effects of the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism on mirtazapine and paroxetine efficacy and adverse events in geriatric major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004b;61(11):1163–1169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nesse RM. Cliff-edged fitness functions and the persistence of schizophrenia. Behav Brain Sci 2004;27(6):862–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paquette V, Levesque J, Mensour B, et al. Change the mind and you change the brain: effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the neural correlates of spider phobia. Neuroimage 2003;18:401–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pezawas L, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Drabant EM, et al. 5–HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Nat Neurosci 2005;8(6):828–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pizzagalli D, Pascual-Marqui RD, Nitschke JB, et al. Anterior cingulate activity as a predictor of degree of treatment response in major depression: evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:405–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rauch SL, Jenike MA, Alpert NM, Baer L, Breiter HC, Savage CR, Fischman AJ. Regional cerebral blood flow measured during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder using oxygen 15-labeled carbon dioxide and positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994 Jan;51(1): 62–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Roffman JL, Marci CD, Glick DM, Dougherty DD, Rauch SL. Neuroimaging and the functional neuroanatomy of psychotherapy. Psychol Med 2005;35(10):1385–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rowe DC. Biology and Crime. Los Angeles: Roxbury, 2001.Google Scholar
  34. Schwartz JM, Stoessel PW, Baxter LR Jr, Martin KM, Phelps ME. Systematic changes in cerebral glucose metabolic rate after successful behavior modification treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996;53(2):109–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wise RA, Bozarth MA. Brain reward circuitry: four circuit elements “wired” in apparent series. Brain Res Bull 1984;297:265–273.Google Scholar
  36. Yeo A, Boyd P, Lumsden S, et al. Association between a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome in women. Gut 2004;53(10):1452–1458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Bibliography

  1. Abi-Dargham A, Laruelle M. Mechanisms of action of second generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: insights from brain imaging studies. Eur Psychiatry 2005;20(1):15–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akira M, Priti S, eds. Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  3. Braver TS, Cohen JD, Nystrom LE, Jonides J, Smith EE, Noll DC. A parametric study of prefrontal cortex involvement in human working memory. NeuroImage 1997;5:49–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE, et al. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5–HTT gene. Science 2003;301:386–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen NJ, Squire LR. Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science 1980;210:207–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. D’Esposito M, Detre JA, Alsop DC, Shin RK, Atlas S, Grossman M. The neural basis of the central executive system of working memory. Nature 1995;378:279–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Esposito M, Postle BR, Ballard D, Lease J. Maintenance versus manipulation of information held in working memory: an event-related fMRI study. Brain Cogn 1999;41:66–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eley TC, et al. Gene-environment interaction analysis of serotonin system markers with adolescent depression. Mol Psychiatry 2004;9:908–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garavan H, Ross TJ, Stein EA. Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: an event-related functional MRI study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:8301–8306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kendler KS, Kuhn J, Prescott CA. The interrelationship of neuroticism, sex, and stressful life events in the prediction of episodes of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:631–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kirsch P, Esslinger C, Chen Q, et al. Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans. J Neurosci 2005;25(49):11489–11493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mountford DD. The significance of litter size. J Animal Ecol 1968;37:363–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Narr KL, Toga AW, Szeszko P, et al. Cortical thinning in cingulate and occipital cortices in first episode schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2005;58(1):32–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nesse RM, Williams GC. Why We Get Sick: The New Science of Darwinian Medicine. New York: Vintage, 1994.Google Scholar
  15. Panksepp J, Moskal J, Panksepp JB, Kroes R. Comparative approaches in evolutionary psychology: molecular neuroscience meets the mind. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2002;23(suppl 4):105–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Riedel G, Platt B, Micheau J. Glutamate receptor function in learning and memory. Behav Brain Res 2003;140:1–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hoyle Leigh
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaFresnoUSA

Personalised recommendations