Patterns of Metastasis in Human Solid Cancers

  • Stanley P. L. Leong
  • Blake Cady
  • David M. Jablons
  • Julio Garcia-Aguilar
  • Douglas Reintgen
  • Jochen A. Werner
  • Yuko Kitagawa
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 135)

To date, lymph node status is the most important predictor for clinical outcome. Clinical models of cancer metastasis have evolved from Halsted’s lymphatic dominant model in which the regional lymph nodes served as filters for cancer cells. When the filter was filled, the cancer cells would move to the other lymph nodes and distant sites. The Halsted’s model (1) was then replaced by Fisher’s model in which all breast cancers were considered to be systemic from their onset (2).


Breast Cancer Rectal Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Clin Oncol Merkel Cell Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley P. L. Leong
    • 1
  • Blake Cady
    • 2
  • David M. Jablons
    • 1
  • Julio Garcia-Aguilar
    • 1
  • Douglas Reintgen
    • 3
  • Jochen A. Werner
    • 4
  • Yuko Kitagawa
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryBrown Medical School, Rhode Island HospitalProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.Lakeland Regional Cancer CenterLakelandUSA
  4. 4.Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryPhilipps-University MarburgGermany
  5. 5.Department of SurgeryKeio University School of MedicineJapan

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