Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori

  • Jonathan Volk
  • Julie Parsonnet


In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) declared Helicobacter pylori to be a type I carcinogen, or a definite cause of cancer in humans (Humans 1994). This landmark decision—based almost exclusively on epidemiologic evidence—was immediately controversial. Some argued that H. pylori could not be considered a “cause” of cancer but only a “risk factor” or “cofactor” (although the difference between these two is largely semantic). Others maintained that the absence of experimental evidence in animals was a critical flaw in the IARC's arguments and left the possibility of residual confounding. Others straddled the fence in anticipation of randomized clinical trials looking at whether H. pylori eradication prevented cancer.

Now, almost 15 years after the IARC's declaration, there is broad consensus that H. pyloricauses gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma despite the failure of the only completed randomized treatment trial to demonstrate adenocarcinoma...


Gastric Cancer Pylorus Infection Pylorus Eradication Atrophic Gastritis Stomach Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Volk
    • 1
  • Julie Parsonnet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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