Role of CagA in Helicobacter pylori Infection and Pathology
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide (Parkin et al. 2001). Various epidemiologic studies identified a role for Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinoma in humans (The Eurogast Study Group 1991; Kikuchi et al. 1995; Parsonnet et al. 1991). In 1994, the World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer classified H. pylori as a group I carcinogen in humans (IARC 1994). CagA protein, encoded by the cagA gene, is one of the most studied virulence factors of H. pylori, and is a highly immunogenic protein. The cagA gene is one of many genes located within the pathogenicity island (PAI) known as the cag PAI. The presence of cagA is considered a marker for the presence of cag PAI (Covacci et al. 1993). The cagPAI is a 40-kb locus in the chromosomal glutamate racemase gene. Its G + C content (35%) differs from the G + C content of the remainder of the genome (39%), suggesting that it was acquired from another organism...
KeywordsGastric Cancer Pylorus Infection Focal Adhesion Kinase Tyrosine Phosphorylation Atrophic Gastritis
- IARC. 1994. Schistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. IARC Sci Publ 61:1–241.Google Scholar
- Saadat, I., Higashi, H., Obuse, C., et al. Helicobacter pylori CagA targets PAR1/MARK kinase to disrupt epithelial cell polarity. Nature 447:330–333.Google Scholar