Advertisement

Improved Street Lighting

  • Brandon C. Welsh
  • David P. Farrington

Improved street lighting serves many purposes, one of them being the prevention of crime. While street lighting improvements may not often be implemented with the expressed aim of preventing crime – pedestrian safety and traffic safety may be viewed as more important aims – and the notion of lighting streets to deter lurking criminals may be too simplistic, its relevance to the prevention of crime has not gone unnoticed in urban centers, residential areas, and other places frequented by criminals and potential victims.

Keywords

Control Area Crime Prevention Experimental Area Informal Social Control Potential Victim 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angel, S. 1968. Discouraging Crime T hrough City Planning. Working Paper, No. 5. Berkeley, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  2. Atkins, Stephen, Sohail Husain, and Angele Storey. 1991. T he Influence of Street L ighting on Crime and Fear of Crime. Crime Prevention Unit Paper, No. 28. London, England: Home Office.Google Scholar
  3. Atlanta Regional Commission. 1974. Street L ight Project Final Evaluation Report. Atlanta GA: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Barr, Robert, and Ken Pease. 1990. ‘‘Crime Placement, Displacement, and Deflection.’’ In Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Vol. 12, edited by Michael Tonry and Norval Morris, 277-318. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bottoms, Anthony E. 1990. Crime Prevention Facing the 1990s. Policing and Society 1: 3-22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blumstein, Alfred, Jacqueline Cohen, Jeffrey A. Roth, and Christy A. Visher, eds. 1986. Criminal Careers and ‘‘Career Criminals,’’ Vol. 1. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  7. Clarke, Ronald V. 1995. ‘‘Situational Crime Prevention.’’ In Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Vol. 19, edited by Michael Tonry and David P. Farrington, 91-150. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  8. —— , and David Weisburd. 1994. ‘‘Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits: Observations on the Reverse of Displacement.’’ In Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 2, edited by Ronald V. Clarke, 165-183. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  9. Department of Intergovernmental Fiscal Liaison. 1974. Final Report - Milwaukee High Intensity Street L ighting Project. Milwaukee, WI: Author.Google Scholar
  10. Eck, John E. 1997. ‘‘Preventing Crime at Places.’’ In Preventing Crime: W hat Works, W hat Doesn’t, W hat’s Promising, by Lawrence W. Sherman, Denise C. Gottfredson, Doris L. MacKenzie, John E. Eck, Peter Reuter, and Shawn D. Bushway, chapter 7. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  11. —— . 2002. ‘‘Preventing Crime at Places.’’ In Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, edited by Lawrence W. Sherman, David P. Farrington, Brandon C. Welsh, and Doris L. MacKenzie, 241-294. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Farrington, David P., and Brandon C. Welsh. 2002. EVects of Improved Street L ighting on Crime: A Systematic Review. Home Office Research Study, No. 251. London, England: Home Office.Google Scholar
  13. —— . 2004. Measuring the Effects of Improved Street Lighting on Crime: A Reply to Dr Marchant. British Journal of Criminology 44: 448-467.Google Scholar
  14. Farrington, David P., Martin Gill, Sam J. Waples, and Javier Argomaniz. 2005. Studying the Effects of CCTV on Crime: Meta-Analysis of a National Evaluation. Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
  15. Fleming, Roy, and John N. Burrows. 1986. The Case for Lighting as a Means of Preventing Crime. Home OYce Research Bulletin 22: 14-17.Google Scholar
  16. Harrisburg Police Department. 1976. Final Evaluation Report of the ‘‘High Intensity Street L ighting Program.’’ Harrisburg, PA: Planning and Research Section, Staff and Technical Services Division, Harrisburg Police Department.Google Scholar
  17. Inskeep, Norman R., and Clinton Goff. 1974. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Portland L ighting Project. Salem, OR: Oregon Law Enforcement Council.Google Scholar
  18. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. T he Death and L ife of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  19. Jeffery, C. Ray. 1977. Crime Prevention T hrough Environmental Design. Second ed. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Jones, Hayley E. 2005. Measuring EVect Size in Area-Based Crime Prevention Research. Unpublished M.Phil. thesis. Cambridge, England: Statistical Laboratory, Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  21. Kelling, George L., and Catherine M. Coles. 1996. Fixing Broken W indows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  22. Lewis, Edward B., and Tommy T. Sullivan. 1979. Combating Crime and Citizen Attitudes: A Case Study of the Corresponding Reality. Journal of Criminal Justice 7: 71-79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Painter, Kate. 1994. The Impact of Street Lighting on Crime, Fear, and Pedestrian Street Use. Security Journal 5: 116-124.Google Scholar
  24. —— . 1996. ‘‘Street Lighting, Crime and Fear of Crime: A Summary of Research.’’ In Preventing Crime and Disorder: T argeting Strategies and Responsibilities, edited by Trevor H. Bennett, 313-351. Cambridge, England: Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  25. Painter, Kate, and David P. Farrington. 1997. ‘‘The Crime Reducing Effect of Improved Street Lighting: The Dudley Project.’’ In Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies, edited by Ronald V. Clarke, 209-226. Second ed. Guilderland, NY: Harrow and Heston.Google Scholar
  26. —— . 1999. ‘‘Street Lighting and Crime: Diffusion of Benefits in the Stoke-on-Trent Project. In Surveillance of Public Space: CCT V , Street L ighting and Crime Prevention. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 10, edited by Kate Painter and Nick Tilley, 77-122. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  27. —— . 2001. Evaluating Situational Crime Prevention Using a Young People’s Survey. British Journal of Criminology 41: 266-284.Google Scholar
  28. Pease, Ken. 1999. ‘‘A Review of Street Lighting Evaluations: Crime Reduction Effects.’’ In Surveillance of Public Space: CCT V , Street L ighting and Crime Prevention, edited by Kate Painter and Nick Tilley, 47-76. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  29. Piquero, Alex R., David P. Farrington, and Alfred Blumstein. 2003. ‘‘The Criminal Career Paradigm.’’ In Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Vol. 30, edited by Michael Tonry, 359-506. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  30. Poyner, Barry. 1991. Situational Crime Prevention in Two Parking Facilities. Security Journal 2: 96-101.Google Scholar
  31. —— . 1993. ‘‘What Works in Crime Prevention: An Overview of Evaluations.’’ In Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 1, edited by Ronald V. Clarke, 7-34. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  32. —— , and Barry Webb. 1997. ‘‘Reducing Theft from Shopping Bags in City Center Markets.’’ In Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies, edited by Ronald V. Clarke, 83-89. Second ed. Guilderland, NY: Harrow and Heston.Google Scholar
  33. Quinet, Kenna D., and Samuel Nunn. 1998. Illuminating Crime: The Impact of Street Lighting on Calls for Police Service. Evaluation Review 22: 751-779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ramsay, Malcolm, and Rosemary Newton. 1991. T he EVect of Better Street L ighting on Crime and Fear: A Review. Crime Prevention Unit Paper, No. 29. London, England: Home Office.Google Scholar
  35. Reppetto, Thomas A. 1976. Crime Prevention and the Displacement Phenomenon. Crime & Delinquency 22: 166-177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shaftoe, Henry. 1994.‘‘Easton/Ashley, Bristol: Lighting Improvements.’’ In Housing Safe Communities: An Evaluation of Recent Initiatives, edited by Steven Osborn, 72-77. London, England: Safe Neighbourhoods Unit.Google Scholar
  37. Skogan, Wesley G. 1990. Disorder and Decline: Crime and the Spiral of Decay in American Neighborhoods. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  38. Sternhell, Robert. 1977. T he L imits of L ighting: T he New Orleans Experiment in Crime Reduction. Final Impact Evaluation Report. New Orleans, LA: Mayor’s Criminal Justice Coordinating Council.Google Scholar
  39. Taub, Richard P., D. Garth Taylor, and Jan D. Dunham. 1984. Paths of Neighborhood Change: Race and Crime in Urban America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Taylor, Ralph B., and Stephen Gottfredson. 1986. ‘‘Environmental Design, Crime and Prevention: An Examination of Community Dynamics.’’ In Communities and Crime. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, edited by Albert J. Reiss, Jr. and Michael Tonry, 387-416. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  41. Tien, James M., Vincent F. O’Donnell, Arnold Barnett, and Pitu B. Mirchandani. 1979. Street L ighting Projects: National Evaluation Program. Phase 1 Report. Washington, DC: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  42. Welsh, Brandon C., and David P. Farrington. 1999. Value for Money? A Review of the Costs and Benefits of Situational Crime Prevention. British Journal of Criminology 39: 345-368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. —— . 2000. ‘‘Monetary Costs and Benefits of Crime Prevention Programs.’’ In Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Vol. 27, edited by Michael Tonry, 305-361. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. Wilson, James Q., and George L. Kelling. 1982. Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety. Atlantic Monthly March: 29-38.Google Scholar
  45. Wright, Roger, Martin Heilweil, Paula Pelletier, and Karen Dickinson. 1974. T he Impact of Street L ighting on Crime. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brandon C. Welsh
    • 1
  • David P. Farrington
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Massachusetts Lowell870 Broadway StreetMA
  2. 2.University of CambridgeSidgwick AvenueCambridge

Personalised recommendations