Non-Aqueous Systems for Formulation Development—Proteins

Part of the Biotechnology: Pharmaceutical Aspects book series (PHARMASP, volume VI)


Formulation of proteins and peptides has been primarily achieved through aqueous solutions or lyophilized cakes for reconstitution. Therefore, the incorporation of non-aqueous formulation techniques has been limited by the lack of general applicability. However, the advent of biotechnology, bioengineering and pharmaceutical delivery systems has increased the requirements for drug solubility and stability under a variety of conditions, and required scientists to pursue alternative strategies. For example, the exploration of drug delivery systems for macromolecules and novel applications for enzyme chemistry have driven the usage of alternate solvent systems.


Propylene Glycol Formulation Development Salmon Calcitonin Nonaqueous Solvent Growth Hormone Release Factor 
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© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
  1. 1.Nektar TherapeuticsSan Carlos

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