Advertisement

Neuroendocrine-Immune Correlates of Sleep and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

  • Paolo Prolo
  • Anna N. Taylor

Abstract

Unexpected crises have set the rhythm of our days after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. In a world that still needs to find a clear path to be open toward the future and to think about the new and the possible, as recently stated by philosopher Bodei (2006), we have unfortunately witnessed the events of September 11, 2001 in New York, March 11, 2004 in Madrid, July 19, 2005 in London and a series of armed conflicts, from Kosovo to Sudan, from East Timor to Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Middle East. All these changes in the world political climate have brought an increase in the incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) both in soldiers and in civilians from war zones and terrorist attacks.

Keywords

Traumatic Brain Injury Sleep Disturbance Sleep Disorder Excessive Daytime Somnolence Severe Head Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agha, A., Phillips, J.O., Kelly, P., Tormey, W., and Thompson, C.J. (2005) The natural history of post-traumatic hypopituitarism: Implications for assessment and treatment. Am J Med 118, 1416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, M.N., McGinty, D., Bushir, T., Kamar, S., Imeri, L., Opp, M.R and Scymusiak, R. (2004) Interleukin-1 beta modulates state-dependent discharge activity of preoptic area and basal forebrain neurons: Role in sleep regulation. Eur J Neurosci 20, 207–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beetar, J.T., Guilmette, T.L., and Sparadeo, F.R. (1996) Sleep and pain complaints in symptomatic traumatic brain injury and neurological populations. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 77, 1298–1302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benvenga, S., Campenni, A., Ruggeri, R.M., and Trimarchi, F. (2000) Hypopituitarism secondary to head trauma. J Clin Endocr Metab 85, 1353–1361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodei, R. (2006) We, the Divided (translated by Jeremy Parzen and Aaron Thomas). Agincourt Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  6. Cernak, I., Savic, V.J., Lazarov, A., Joksimovic, M., and Markovic, S. (1999) Neuroendocrine responses following graded traumatic brain injury in male adults. Brain Injury 13, 1005–1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Childers, M.K., Rupright, J., Jones, P.S., and Merveille, O. (1998) Assessment of neuroendocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 12, 547–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohan, P., Wang, C., McArthur, D.L., Cook, S.W., Dusick, J.R., Armin, B., Swerdloff, R., Vespa, P., Muizelaar, J.P., Cryer, H.G., Christenson, P.D., and Kelly, D.F. (2005) Acute secondary adrenal insufficiency after traumatic brain injury: A prospective study. Crit Care Med 233, 2358–2366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, M., Oksenberg, A., Snir, D., Stern, M., and Groswasser, Z. (1992). Temporally related changes of sleep complaints in traumatic brain injured patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55, 313–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Crompton, M.R. (1971) Hypthalamic lesions following closed head injury. Brain 94, 165–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dikmen, S.S., Bobmardier, C.H., Machamer, J.E., Fann, J.R., and Temkin, N.R. (2004) Natural history of depression in traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85, 1457–1464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fann, J.R., Burington, B., Leonetti, A., Jaffe, K., Katon, W.J., and Thompson, R.S. (2004) Psychiatric illness following traumatic brain injury in an adult health maintenance organization population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61, 53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fichtenberg, N., Zafonte, R., Putnam, S., Mann, N., and Millard, A. (2002) Insomnia in a postacute brain injury sample. Brain Injury 16, 197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frieboes, R.-M., Muller, U., Murch, H., von Cramon, D.Y., Holsboer, F., and Steiger, A. (1999) Nocturnal hormone secretion and the sleep EEG in patients several months after traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 11, 354–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gold, P.W., and Chrousos, G.P. (2002) Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: High vs low CRH/NE states. Mol Psychiatry 7, 254–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grundy, P.L., Harbuz, M.S., Jessop, D.S., Lightman, S.L., and Sharples, P.M. (2001) The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response to experimental traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 18, 1373–1381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kelly, D.F., Gaw Gonzalo, I.T., Cohan, P., Berman, N., Swerdloff, R., and Wang, C. (2000) Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A preliminary report. J Neurosurg 93, 743–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kropyvnytskyy, I., Saunders, F., Pols, M., and Zarowski, C. (2001) Circadian rhythm of temperature in head injury. Brain Injury 15, 511–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lew, H.L. (2005) Guest Editorial: Rehabilitation needs of an increasing population of patients: Traumatic brain injury, polytrauma, and blast-related injuries. J Rehabil Res Dev 42, xiii–xvi.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lieberman, S.A., Oberoi, A.L., Gilkison, C.R., Masel, B.E., and Urban, R.J. (2001) Prevalence of neuroendocrine dysfunction in patients recovering from traumatic brain injury. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 2752–2756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lighthall, J.W., Gochgarian, H.G., and Pinderski, C.R. (1990) Characterization of axonal injury produced by controlled cortical impact. J Neurotrauma 7, 65–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Littner, M., Kushida, C.A., McDowell Anderson, W., Bailey, D., Berry, R.B., Davila, D.G., Hirshkowitz, M., Kapen, S., Kramer, M., Loube, D., Wise, M., and Johnson, S.F. (2002) Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Practice parameters for the role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms: An update for 2002. Sleep 26, 337–341.Google Scholar
  23. Mahmood, O., Rapport, L.J., Hanks, R.A., and Fichtenberg, N.L. (2004) Neuropsychological performance and sleep disturbance following traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 19, 378–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McCullers, D.L., Sullivan, P.G., Scheff, S.W., and Herman, J.P. (2002) Mifepristone protects CA1 hippocampal neurons following traumatic brain injury in rat. Neuroscience 109, 219–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mitchell, A., Steffenson, N., and Davenport, K. (1997) Hypopituitarism due to traumatic brain injury: A case study. Crit Care Nurse 17, 34–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Morganti-Kossmann, M.C., Rancan, M., Stahel, P.F., and Kossmann, T. (2002) Inflammatory response in acute traumatic brain injury: A double-edged sword. Curr Opin Crit Care 8, 101–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parcell, D.L., Ponsford, J.L., Rajaratnam, S.M., and Redman, J.R. (2006) Self-reported changes to nighttime sleep after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87, 278–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Plata-Salaman, C.R. (1998) Brain injury and immunosuppression. Nat Med 4, 768–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Prolo, P., Iribarren, F.J., Neagos, N., and Chiappelli F. (2006) Role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in sleep disorders. In.: D.P. Cardinali and S.R. Pandi-Perumal (Eds.), Neuroendocrine Correlates of Sleep/Wakefulness. Springer Science, New York, pp. 537–552.Google Scholar
  30. Prolo, P., and Chiappelli, F. (in press) Immune suppression. In: S. Vanstone, G. Chrousos, I. Craig, R. de Kloet, G. Feuerstein, B. McEwen, N. Rose, R. Rubin, and A. Steptoe (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Stress II. Elsevier, London.Google Scholar
  31. Rao, V., and Rollings, P. (2002) Sleep disturbances following traumatic brain injury. Curr Treat Options Neurol 4, 77–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roe, S.Y., McGowan, E.M., and Rothwell, N.J. (1998) Evidence for the involvement of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury. Eur J Neurosci 10, 553–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ron, S., Algom, D., Harry, D., and Cohen, M. (1980) Time-related changes in the distribution of sleep stages in brain injured patients. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 48, 432–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rudy, T.A. (1980) Pathogenesis of fever associated with cerebral trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. In: Thermoregulatory Mechanisms and Their Therapeutic Implications. 4th International Symposium on the Pharmacology of Thermoregulation. Oxford, pp. 75–81.Google Scholar
  35. Ryan, L.M., and Warden, D.L. (2003) Post concussion syndrome. Int Rev Psychiatry 15, 310–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shafer, L.L., McNulty, J.A., and Young, M.R. (2002) Brain activation of monocute-lineage cells: Involvement of interleukin-6. Neuroimmunomodulation 10, 295–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Steele, D.L., Rajaratnam, S.M., Redman, J.R., and Ponsford, J.L. (2005) The effect of traumatic brain injury on the timing of sleep. Chronobiol Int 22, 89–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taylor, A.N., Rahman, S.U., Tio, D.L., Sanders, M.J., Bando, J.K., Truong, A.H., and Prolo, P. (2006) Lasting neuroendocrine-immune effects of traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 23(12): 1802–1813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vgontzas, A.N., Papanicolaou, A.N., Bixler, E.O., Lotsikas, A., Zachman, K., Kales, A., Wong, M.-L., Licinio, J., Prolo, P., Gold, P.W., Hermida, R.C., Mastorakos, G., and Chrousos, G.P. (1999) Circadian interleukin-6 secretion and quantity and depth of sleep. J Clin Endocr Metab 84, 2603–2607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vgontzas, A.N., Bixler, E.O., Lin, H.M., Prolo, P., Trakada, G., and Chrousos, G.P. (2005) ILTaylor, 6 and its circadian secretion in humans. Neuroimmunomodulation 12, 131–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Woiciechowsky, C., Asadullah, K., Nestler, D., Eberhardt, B., Platzer, C., Schoning, B., Glockner, F., Lanksch, W.R., Volk, H.D., and Docke, W.D. (1998) Sympathetic activation triggers systemic interleukin-10 release in immunodepression induced by brain injury. Nat Med 4, 808–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yuan, X.-Q., and Wade, C.E. (1991) Neuroendocrine abnormalities in patients with traumatic brain injury. Front Neuroendocrinol 12, 209–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Prolo
  • Anna N. Taylor

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations