Changes in Sleep and Behavior Following Experimental Immune Stimulation Using Bacterial Endotoxin in Humans
During acute or chronic infection and inflammation complex changes in a variety of physiological systems occur. In addition to changes in temperature or the induction of fever also behavioral changes like tiredness, flu-like symptoms and impaired concentration are common. During the last 20 to 30 years there is rapidly growing interest and also knowledge about the underlying mechanisms: One of the first important findings was the observation, that the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is stimulated following the peripheral administration of interleukin-1 (IL-1) (Besedovsky, del Rey, Sorkin, and Dinarello 1986). After this basic finding in psychoneuroimmunological research further studies focused on the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 as major components in the interaction of peripheral immune function and central nervous system (CNS): These peptides belong to the huge number of cytokines which are involved in this brain-immune interaction (see Hopkins and Rothwell 1995; Rothwell and Hopkins 1995). In human research mainly cytokines of the cytokine families of interleukins, interferons (IFN), or the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family have been investigated.
KeywordsJuvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Bacterial Endotoxin Sickness Behavior Central Nervous System Function Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Haack, M., Hinze-Selch, D., Fenzel, T., Kraus, T., Kühn, M., Schuld, A., and Pollmächer, T. (1999). Plasma levels of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors in psychiatric patients upon hospital admission: Effects of confounding factors and diagnosis. J Psychiatr Res 33, 407–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mullington, J., Korth, C., Herman, D.M., Orth, A., Galanos, C., Holsboer, F., and Pollmächer, T. (2000). Dose-dependent effects of endotoxin on human sleep. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 278, R947-R955.Google Scholar