Changes in Sleep and Behavior Following Experimental Immune Stimulation Using Bacterial Endotoxin in Humans

  • Andreas Schuld
  • Monika Haack
  • Janet Mullington
  • Thomas Pollmächer


During acute or chronic infection and inflammation complex changes in a variety of physiological systems occur. In addition to changes in temperature or the induction of fever also behavioral changes like tiredness, flu-like symptoms and impaired concentration are common. During the last 20 to 30 years there is rapidly growing interest and also knowledge about the underlying mechanisms: One of the first important findings was the observation, that the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is stimulated following the peripheral administration of interleukin-1 (IL-1) (Besedovsky, del Rey, Sorkin, and Dinarello 1986). After this basic finding in psychoneuroimmunological research further studies focused on the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 as major components in the interaction of peripheral immune function and central nervous system (CNS): These peptides belong to the huge number of cytokines which are involved in this brain-immune interaction (see Hopkins and Rothwell 1995; Rothwell and Hopkins 1995). In human research mainly cytokines of the cytokine families of interleukins, interferons (IFN), or the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family have been investigated.


Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Bacterial Endotoxin Sickness Behavior Central Nervous System Function Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 
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© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Schuld
  • Monika Haack
  • Janet Mullington
  • Thomas Pollmächer

There are no affiliations available

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