Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer: Lessons Learned from the PTEN Prostate Cancer Model

  • David J. Mulholland
  • Jing Jiao
  • Hong Wu
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 617)

Progressive prostate cancer (PC) generally takes many years to clinically manifest and, therefore, is generally a disease associated with the elderly. Although PC patients live for many years, those that are diagnosed with advanced disease earlier in life are the ones most likely to require therapeutic intervention. For PC patients, the mainstay of treatment for advanced, extracapsular disease is hormone blockade or androgen ablation. Anti-androgens and castration reduce circulating 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), thereby promoting apoptosis of androgen-dependent prostatic epithelium; however, this therapy is only palliative. Many patients after 12–16 months will undergo prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure, which is generally associated with hormone refractive prostate cancer (HRPC) and poor clinical outcome (1).


Prostate Cancer Androgen Receptor Prostate Cancer Patient PTEN Expression PTEN Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Mulholland
  • Jing Jiao
  • Hong Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Molecular and Medicinal Pharmacology UCLA School of MedicineHoward Hughes Medical Inst.Los AngelesUSA

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