Centromeres and Kinetochores: An Historical Perspective

  • Kerry S. Bloom

Identification of Yeast Centromere DNA

As a preface of tribute to Centromere and Kinetochore function, it is interesting to reflect upon the discovery of chromosomes in the late 1880s when chromosomes were named (HWG von Waldeyer, 1888) and their function in heredity proposed by Boveri and Sutton’s “Chromosome Theory of Inheritance” to almost 100 years later when the elements of chromosome propagation, namely centromere, telomere, and origins of replication were clearly identified. One can only imagine that the excitement in the field in the early 1880s was matched by the bold proposal that chromosomes were the unit of inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915 and contained the hereditary material. The DNA was discovered by Freidrich Meischer in 1869. It is noteworthy that it took almost 30 years after the determination of the double helical DNA structure, in 1953, to identify the sequence elements of chromosome structure. Identifying genes was child’s play in comparison. The...


Spindle Pole Postdoctoral Fellow Kinetochore Protein Human Artificial Chromosome Sister Centromere 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allshire, R.C., J.P. Javerzat, N.J. Redhead, and G. Cranston. 1994. Position effect variegation at fission yeast centromeres. Cell. 76:157–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Basu, J., and H.F. Willard. 2006. Human artificial chromosomes: potential applications and clinical considerations. Pediatr Clin North Am. 53:843–53, viii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baum, M., V.K. Ngan, and L. Clarke. 1994. The centromeric K-type repeat and the central core are together sufficient to establish a functional Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromere. Mol Biol Cell. 5:747–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blat, Y., and N. Kleckner. 1999. Cohesins bind to preferential sites along yeast chromosome III, with differential regulation along arms versus the centric region. Cell. 98:249–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bloom, K., E. Amaya, and E. Yeh. 1984. Centromeric DNA structure in yeast. Mol Biol Cytoskeleton. 175–84.Google Scholar
  6. Bloom, K., S. Sharma, and N.V. Dokholyan. 2006. The path of DNA in the kinetochore. Curr Biol. 16:R276–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloom, K.S., and J. Carbon. 1982. Yeast centromere DNA is in a unique and highly ordered structure in chromosomes and small circular minichromosomes. Cell. 29:305–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brinkley, B.R., and E. Stubblefield. 1966. The fine structure of the kinetochore of a mammalian cell in vitro. Chromosoma. 19:28–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Britten, R.J., and D.E. Kohne. 1968. Repeated sequences in DNA. Hundreds of thousands of copies of DNA sequences have been incorporated into the genomes of higher organisms. Science. 161:529–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Camahort, R., B. Li, L. Florens, S.K. Swanson, M.P. Washburn, and J.L. Gerton. 2007. Scm3 is essential to recruit the histone h3 variant cse4 to centromeres and to maintain a functional kinetochore. Mol Cell. 26:853–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cameron, J.R., E.Y. Loh, and R.W. Davis. 1979. Evidence for transposition of dispersed repetitive DNA families in yeast. Cell. 16:739–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Carminati, J.L., and T. Stearns. 1997. Microtubules orient the mitotic spindle in yeast through dynein-dependent interactions with the cell cortex. J Cell Biol. 138:629–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Centola, M., and J. Carbon. 1994. Cloning and characterization of centromeric DNA from Neurospora crassa. Mol Cell Biol. 14:1510–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chikashige, Y., N. Kinoshita, Y. Nakaseko, T. Matsumoto, S. Murakami, O. Niwa, and M. Yanagida. 1989. Composite motifs and repeat symmetry in S. pombe centromeres: direct analysis by integration of NotI restriction sites. Cell. 57:739–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chinault, A.C., and J. Carbon. 1979. Overlap hybridization screening: isolation and characterization of overlapping DNA fragments surrounding the leu2 gene on yeast chromosome III. Gene. 5:111–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Clarke, L., H. Amstutz, B. Fishel, and J. Carbon. 1986. Analysis of centromeric DNA in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 83:8253–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clarke, L., and J. Carbon. 1976. A colony bank containing synthetic Col El hybrid plasmids representative of the entire E. coli genome. Cell. 9:91–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Clarke, L., and J. Carbon. 1980. Isolation of a yeast centromere and construction of functional small circular chromosomes. Nature. 287:504–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Clarke, L., and J. Carbon. 1983. Genomic substitutions of centromeres in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature. 305:23–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooke, C.A., D.P. Bazett-Jones, W.C. Earnshaw, and J.B. Rattner. 1993. Mapping DNA within the mammalian kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 120:1083–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Copenhaver, G.P., K. Nickel, T. Kuromori, M.I. Benito, S. Kaul, X. Lin, M. Bevan, G. Murphy, B. Harris, L.D. Parnell, W.R. McCombie, R.A. Martienssen, M. Marra, and D. Preuss. 1999. Genetic definition and sequence analysis of Arabidopsis centromeres. Science. 286:2468–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Doyle, T., and D. Botstein. 1996. Movement of yeast cortical actin cytoskeleton visualized in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 93:3886–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Earnshaw, W.C., and B.R. Migeon. 1985. Three related centromere proteins are absent from the inactive centromere of a stable isodicentric chromosome. Chromosoma. 92:290–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Earnshaw, W.C., and N. Rothfield. 1985. Identification of a family of human centromere proteins using autoimmune sera from patients with scleroderma. Chromosoma. 91:313–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Earnshaw, W.C., K.F. Sullivan, P.S. Machlin, C.A. Cooke, D.A. Kaiser, T.D. Pollard, N.F. Rothfield, and D.W. Cleveland. 1987. Molecular cloning of cDNA for CENP-B, the major human centromere autoantigen. J Cell Biol. 104:817–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fitzgerald-Hayes, M., L. Clarke, and J. Carbon. 1982. Nucleotide sequence comparisons and functional analysis of yeast centromere DNAs. Cell. 29:235–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fleig, U., M. Sen-Gupta, and J.H. Hegemann. 1996. Fission yeast mal2+ is required for chromosome segregation. Mol Cell Biol. 16:6169–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Folco, H.D., A.L. Pidoux, T. Urano, and R.C. Allshire. 2008. Heterochromatin and RNAi are required to establish CENP-A chromatin at centromeres. Science. 319:94–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gall, J.G. 1963. Kinetics of deoxyribonuclease action on chromosomes. Nature. 198:36–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Goh, P.Y., and J.V. Kilmartin. 1993. NDC10: a gene involved in chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 121:503–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Goshima, G., and M. Yanagida. 2000. Establishing biorientation occurs with precocious separation of the sister kinetochores, but not the arms, in the early spindle of budding yeast. Cell. 100:619–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Goshima, G., and M. Yanagida. 2001. Time course analysis of precocious separation of sister centromeres in budding yeast: continuously separated or frequently reassociated? Genes Cells. 6:765–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gottschling, D.E., O.M. Aparicio, B.L. Billington, and V.A. Zakian. 1990. Position effect at S. cerevisiae telomeres: reversible repression of Pol II transcription. Cell. 63:751–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hartwell, L.H., J. Culotti, and B. Reid. 1970. Genetic control of the cell-division cycle in yeast. I. Detection of mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 66:352–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. He, X., S. Asthana, and P.K. Sorger. 2000. Transient sister chromatid separation and elastic deformation of chromosomes during mitosis in budding yeast. Cell. 101:763–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hieter, P., C. Mann, M. Snyder, and R.W. Davis. 1985a. Mitotic stability of yeast chromosomes: a colony color assay that measures nondisjunction and chromosome loss. Cell. 40:381–92.Google Scholar
  37. Hieter, P., D. Pridmore, J.H. Hegemann, M. Thomas, R.W. Davis, and P. Philippsen. 1985b. Functional selection and analysis of yeast centromeric DNA. Cell. 42:913–21.Google Scholar
  38. Hill, A., and K. Bloom. 1987. Genetic manipulation of centromere function. Mol Cell Biol. 7:2397–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hinnen, A., J.B. Hicks, and G.R. Fink. 1978. Transformation of yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 75:1929–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hitzeman, R.A., L. Clarke, and J. Carbon. 1980. Isolation and characterization of the yeast 3-phosphoglycerokinase gene (PGK) by an immunological screening technique. J Biol Chem. 255:12073–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hsiao, C.L., and J. Carbon. 1981. Direct selection procedure for the isolation of functional centromeric DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 78:3760–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Huang, C.E., M. Milutinovich, and D. Koshland. 2005. Rings, bracelet or snaps: fashionable alternatives for Smc complexes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 360:537–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Inoue, S., and H. Ritter, Jr. 1978. Mitosis in Barbulanympha. II. Dynamics of a two-stage anaphase, nuclear morphogenesis, and cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 77:655–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jiang, W., J. Lechner, and J. Carbon. 1993. Isolation and characterization of a gene (CBF2) specifying a protein component of the budding yeast kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 121:513–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Joglekar, A.P., D.C. Bouck, J.N. Molk, K.S. Bloom, and E.D. Salmon. 2006. Molecular architecture of a kinetochore-microtubule attachment site. Nat Cell Biol. 8:581–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jokelainen, P.T. 1967. The ultrastructure and spatial organization of the metaphase kinetochore in mitotic rat cells. J Ultrastruct Res. 19:19–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kahana, J.A., B.J. Schnapp, and P.A. Silver. 1995. Kinetics of spindle pole body separation in budding yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 92:9707–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kingsman, A.J., R.L. Gimlich, L. Clarke, A.C. Chinault, and J. Carbon. 1981. Sequence variation in dispersed repetitive sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Mol Biol. 145:619–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Koning, A.J., P.Y. Lum, J.M. Williams, and R. Wright. 1993. DiOC6 staining reveals organelle structure and dynamics in living yeast cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 25:111–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kornberg, R.D., and J.O. Thomas. 1974. Chromatin structure; oligomers of the histones. Science. 184:865–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Koshland, D., and L.H. Hartwell. 1987. The structure of sister minichromosome DNA before anaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science. 238:1713–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Koshland, D., J.C. Kent, and L.H. Hartwell. 1985. Genetic analysis of the mitotic transmission of minichromosomes. Cell. 40:393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lambie, E.J., and G.S. Roeder. 1986. Repression of meiotic crossing over by a centromere (CEN3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 114:769–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lechner, J., and J. Carbon. 1991. A 240 kd multisubunit protein complex, CBF3, is a major component of the budding yeast centromere. Cell. 64:717–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Maiato, H., J. DeLuca, E.D. Salmon, and W.C. Earnshaw. 2004. The dynamic kinetochore-microtubule interface. J Cell Sci. 117:5461–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Maio, J.J. 1971. DNA strand reassociation and polyribonucleotide binding in the African green monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops. J Mol Biol. 56:579–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. McClintock, B. 1939. The Behavior in Successive Nuclear Divisions of a Chromosome Broken at Meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 25:405–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. McClintock, B. 1941. The Stability of Broken Ends of Chromosomes in Zea Mays. Genetics. 26:234–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. McClintock, B. 1942. The Fusion of Broken Ends of Chromosomes Following Nuclear Fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 28:458–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. McGrew, J., B. Diehl, and M. Fitzgerald-Hayes. 1986. Single base-pair mutations in centromere element III cause aberrant chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 6:530–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Meluh, P.B., P. Yang, L. Glowczewski, D. Koshland, and M.M. Smith. 1998. Cse4p is a component of the core centromere of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell. 94:607–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mishra, P.K., M. Baum, and J. Carbon. 2007. Centromere size and position in Candida albicans are evolutionarily conserved independent of DNA sequence heterogeneity. Mol Genet Genomics.Google Scholar
  63. Mizuguchi, G., H. Xiao, J. Wisniewski, M.M. Smith, and C. Wu. 2007. Nonhistone Scm3 and histones CenH3-H4 assemble the core of centromere-specific nucleosomes. Cell. 129:1153–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Moore, L.L., M. Morrison, and M.B. Roth. 1999. HCP-1, a protein involved in chromosome segregation, is localized to the centromere of mitotic chromosomes in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Cell Biol. 147:471–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Moroi, Y., C. Peebles, M.J. Fritzler, J. Steigerwald, and E.M. Tan. 1980. Autoantibody to centromere (kinetochore) in scleroderma sera. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 77:1627–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Morris, C.A., and D. Moazed. 2007. Centromere assembly and propagation. Cell. 128:647–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Murray, A.W., and J.W. Szostak. 1983a. Construction of artificial chromosomes in yeast. Nature. 305:189–93.Google Scholar
  68. Murray, A.W., and J.W. Szostak. 1983b. Pedigree analysis of plasmid segregation in yeast. Cell. 34:961–70.Google Scholar
  69. Murray, A.W., and J.W. Szostak. 1985. Chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1:289–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mythreye, K., and K.S. Bloom. 2003. Differential kinetochore protein requirements for establishment versus propagation of centromere activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 160:833–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nakano, M., S. Cardinale, V.N. Noskov, R. Gassmann, P. Vagnarelli, S. Kandels-Lewis, V. Larionov, W.C. Earnshaw, and H. Masumoto. 2008. Inactivation of a human kinetochore by specific targeting of chromatin modifiers. Developmental Cell . 14:507–522.Google Scholar
  72. Nasmyth, K., and C.H. Haering. 2005. The structure and function of SMC and kleisin complexes. Annu Rev Biochem. 74:595–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Nasmyth, K.A., and S.I. Reed. 1980. Isolation of genes by complementation in yeast: molecular cloning of a cell-cycle gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 77:2119–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Olins, A.L., and D.E. Olins. 1974. Spheroid chromatin units (v bodies). Science. 183:330–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Olins, D.E., and A.L. Olins. 2003. Chromatin history: our view from the bridge. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 4:809–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Oliver, S.G., Q.J. van der Aart, M.L. Agostoni-Carbone, M. Aigle, L. Alberghina, D. Alexandraki, G. Antoine, R. Anwar, J.P. Ballesta, P. Benit, and et al. 1992. The complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome III. Nature. 357:38–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Orr-Weaver, T.L., J.W. Szostak, and R.J. Rothstein. 1981. Yeast transformation: a model system for the study of recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 78:6354–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Osborne, M.A., G. Schlenstedt, T. Jinks, and P.A. Silver. 1994. Nuf2, a spindle pole body-associated protein required for nuclear division in yeast. J Cell Biol. 125:853–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pearson, C.G., P.S. Maddox, E.D. Salmon, and K. Bloom. 2001. Budding yeast chromosome structure and dynamics during mitosis. J Cell Biol. 152:1255–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Peterson, J.B., and H. Ris. 1976. Electron-microscopic study of the spindle and chromosome movement in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 22:219–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pluta, A.F., A.M. Mackay, A.M. Ainsztein, I.G. Goldberg, and W.C. Earnshaw. 1995. The centromere: hub of chromosomal activities. Science. 270:1591–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rattner, J.B., and D.P. Bazett-Jones. 1988. Electron spectroscopic imaging of the centrosome in cells of the Indian muntjac. J Cell Sci. 91 (Pt 1):5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rattner, J.B., and D.P. Bazett-Jones. 1989. Kinetochore structure: electron spectroscopic imaging of the kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 108:1209–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ren, X., C.G. Tahimic, M. Katoh, A. Kurimasa, T. Inoue, and M. Oshimura. 2006. Human artificial chromosome vectors meet stem cells: new prospects for gene delivery. Stem Cell Rev. 2:43–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rieder, C.L. 2005. Kinetochore fiber formation in animal somatic cells: dueling mechanisms come to a draw. Chromosoma. 114:310–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sanyal, K., M. Baum, and J. Carbon. 2004. Centromeric DNA sequences in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans are all different and unique. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 101:11374–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Saunders, M.J., E. Yeh, M. Grunstein, and K. Bloom. 1990. Nucleosome depletion alters the chromatin structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres. Mol Cell Biol. 10:5721–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Schueler, M.G., A.W. Higgins, M.K. Rudd, K. Gustashaw, and H.F. Willard. 2001. Genomic and genetic definition of a functional human centromere. Science. 294:109–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Schwartz, D.C., and C.R. Cantor. 1984. Separation of yeast chromosome-sized DNAs by pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis. Cell. 37:67–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Shaw, S.L., E. Yeh, K. Bloom, and E.D. Salmon. 1997a. Imaging green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Biol. 7:701–4.Google Scholar
  91. Shaw, S.L., E. Yeh, P. Maddox, E.D. Salmon, and K. Bloom. 1997b. Astral microtubule dynamics in yeast: a microtubule-based searching mechanism for spindle orientation and nuclear migration into the bud. J Cell Biol. 139:985–94.Google Scholar
  92. Snyder, M., R.J. Sapolsky, and R.W. Davis. 1988. Transcription interferes with elements important for chromosome maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 8:2184–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Spencer, F., S.L. Gerring, C. Connelly, and P. Hieter. 1990. Mitotic chromosome transmission fidelity mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 124:237–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Steiner, N.C., and L. Clarke. 1994. A novel epigenetic effect can alter centromere function in fission yeast. Cell. 79:865–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Stinchcomb, D.T., K. Struhl, and R.W. Davis. 1979. Isolation and characterisation of a yeast chromosomal replicator. Nature. 282:39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Stoler, S., K. Rogers, S. Weitze, L. Morey, M. Fitzgerald-Hayes, and R.E. Baker. 2007. Scm3, an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere protein required for G2/M progression and Cse4 localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104:10571–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Straight, A.F., A.S. Belmont, C.C. Robinett, and A.W. Murray. 1996. GFP tagging of budding yeast chromosomes reveals that protein-protein interactions can mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Curr Biol. 6:1599–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Straight, A.F., J.W. Sedat, and A.W. Murray. 1998. Time-lapse microscopy reveals unique roles for kinesins during anaphase in budding yeast. J Cell Biol. 143:687–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Struhl, K., D.T. Stinchcomb, S. Scherer, and R.W. Davis. 1979. High-frequency transformation of yeast: autonomous replication of hybrid DNA molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 76:1035–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Sullivan, K.F., M. Hechenberger, and K. Masri. 1994. Human CENP-A contains a histone H3 related histone fold domain that is required for targeting to the centromere. J Cell Biol. 127:581–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sun, X., H.D. Le, J.M. Wahlstrom, and G.H. Karpen. 2003. Sequence analysis of a functional Drosophila centromere. Genome Res. 13:182–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Suzuki, N., K. Nishii, T. Okazaki, and M. Ikeno. 2006. Human artificial chromosomes constructed using the bottom-up strategy are stably maintained in mitosis and efficiently transmissible to progeny mice. J Biol Chem. 281:26615–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Szostak, J.W., and E.H. Blackburn. 1982. Cloning yeast telomeres on linear plasmid vectors. Cell. 29:245–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Tanaka, T., J. Fuchs, J. Loidl, and K. Nasmyth. 2000. Cohesin ensures bipolar attachment of microtubules to sister centromeres and resists their precocious separation. Nat Cell Biol. 2:492–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Thompson, D.A.W. 1917. On Growth and Form. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Tsuduki, T., M. Nakano, N. Yasuoka, S. Yamazaki, T. Okada, Y. Okamoto, and H. Masumoto. 2006. An artificially constructed de novo human chromosome behaves almost identically to its natural counterpart during metaphase and anaphase in living cells. Mol Cell Biol. 26:7682–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Uhlmann, F., D. Wernic, M.A. Poupart, E.V. Koonin, and K. Nasmyth. 2000. Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in yeast. Cell. 103:375–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Warburton, P.E., C.A. Cooke, S. Bourassa, O. Vafa, B.A. Sullivan, G. Stetten, G. Gimelli, D. Warburton, C. Tyler-Smith, K.F. Sullivan, G.G. Poirier, and W.C. Earnshaw. 1997. Immunolocalization of CENP-A suggests a distinct nucleosome structure at the inner kinetochore plate of active centromeres. Curr Biol. 7:901–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Waye, J.S., S.J. Durfy, D. Pinkel, S. Kenwrick, M. Patterson, K.E. Davies, and H.F. Willard. 1987. Chromosome-specific alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 1: hierarchical structure and genomic organization of a polymorphic domain spanning several hundred kilobase pairs of centromeric DNA. Genomics. 1:43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Weber, S.A., J.L. Gerton, J.E. Polancic, J.L. DeRisi, D. Koshland, and P.C. Megee. 2004. The kinetochore is an enhancer of pericentric cohesin binding. PLoS Biol. 2:E260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wetmur, J.G., and N. Davidson. 1968. Kinetics of renaturation of DNA. J Mol Biol. 31:349–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Willard, H.F. 1991. Evolution of alpha satellite. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1:509–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Yeh, E., J. Haase, L.V. Paliulis, A. Joglekar, L. Bond, D. Bouck, E.D. Salmon, and K.S. Bloom. 2008. Pericentric chromatin is organized into an intramolecular loop in mitosis. Curr Biol. 18:81–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Yeh, E., R.V. Skibbens, J.W. Cheng, E.D. Salmon, and K. Bloom. 1995. Spindle dynamics and cell cycle regulation of dynein in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 130:687–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel Hill

Personalised recommendations