Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia: An Unique Genetic Sensitivity to Chemotherapy

  • Jeffrey W. Taub
  • Yubin Ge
  • Yaddanapudi Ravindranath


Following the first description of leukemia in a Down syndrome (DS) child in 1930 (Brewster and Cannon 1930), a national survey in 1957 confirmed that DS individuals had an increased risk of developing leukemia (Krivit and Good 1957). It has been estimated that DS children have a 10 to 20-fold increased risk of developing both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared to nonDS children (Taub 2001). A Danish population-based study reported that the cumulative risk of developing leukemia in DS children by the age of 5 was 2.1%, and there was an approximately fourfold higher standardized incidence ratio of AML compared to ALL (Hasle et al. 2000). The Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) cooperative group reported that DS children with ALL and AML comprised 2.1% and 14%, respectively, of total childhood leukemia cases (Zeller et al. 2005). In the Children’s Cancer Group (CCG) 2891 study, 15% of the AML patients had DS, indicating that DS children comprise one of the largest subgroup of AML patients.


Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Down Syndrome Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patient Down Syndrome Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Supported by grants RO1 CA92308 and CA120772 from the National Cancer Institute, the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, The Elana Fund, The Ring Screw Textron Chair in Pediatric Cancer Research and The Georgie Ginopolis Chair for Pediatric Cancer and Hematology.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey W. Taub
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yubin Ge
  • Yaddanapudi Ravindranath
  1. 1.Division of Hematology/OncologyChildren’s Hospital of MichiganDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
  3. 3.Developmental and Therapeutics ProgramBarbara Ann Karmanos Cancer InstituteDetroitUSA

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