As we saw in earlier sections, front end and back end manufacturing variations can lead to variability in the physical and electrical properties of individual integrated circuit components. This physical variability is predominantly a function of the fabrication process, with random and systematic components. But the very meaning of the word integrated implies that an IC is composed of many individual circuits manufactured simultaneously and working concurrently to perform the overall function of the IC. This integration means that the various components and circuits share a common operating environment. This environment includes: (1) The silicon substrate on which the various circuits are integrated, which is typically electrically resistive and is an excellent thermal conductor. (2) The package in which the integrated circuit is sealed in order to protect it, and the connections between the packaged circuit and the external environment, through which the circuit is supplied with power as well as input and output signals.
KeywordsPower Dissipation Power Grid Environmental Variability Power Supply Voltage Ring Oscillator
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