Anesthesia Options in Endoscopic Forehead Lifting

  • Andrew S. Eiseman


The decision to use general anesthesia or local anesthesia with monitored anesthesia care is usually left up to the patient. The procedure can be completed quite comfortably with intraveous sedation. However, if the endoscopic forehead elevation surgery is to be combined with other procedures, general anesthesia may be a better choice simply because of the length of time the patient will have to remain still if awake. Even if general anesthesia is chosen, local anesthesia is infiltrated under the forehead region to aid in hemostasis and to provide postoperative analgesia. There are two main options when administering the local anesthetic. The first option is local infiltration of the entire forehead region. The second option is a tumescent technique that places dilute anesthetic in the subperiosteal plane centrally and under the superficial temporal fascia laterally.


Safe Dose Scalp Incision Tumescent Technique Superficial Temporal Fascia Subperiosteal Plane 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew S. Eiseman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Uniformed Services University of the Health SciencesUSA
  2. 2.Oculoplastics and Orbit Disease Center, Department of SurgeryWalter Reed Army Medical Center, Eye ClinicWashington D.C.USA

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