Advertisement

Angiography of Inflammatory Diseases in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients

  • J. Fernando Arevalo
  • Reinaldo A. Garcia
  • Lourdes Arellanes-Garcia
  • Jans Fromow-Guerra

Retinal fluorescein angiography (FA) constitutes a valuable study in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with inflammatory eye diseases.1 Changes in fluorescence secondary to inflammation are divided into those that produce a hyperfluorescent image and those that produce hypofluorescence (Table 6.1).2 Hyperfluorescence may be secondary to abnormal blood vessels, dye filtration or to a defect in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), allowing the choroidal circulation to become more apparent. Hypofluorescence is due to a block in fluorescence (i.e., pigment accumulation) or to a defect in vascular filling.2

Keywords

Fluorescein Angiography Indocyanine Green Cystoid Macular Edema Indocyanine Green Angiography Cytomegalovirus Retinitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nussenblatt RB, Whitcup SM, Palestine AG. Diagnostic testing. In: Uveitis. Fundamentals and Clinical Practice. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996:79–90.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Richard G. Evaluating a fluorescein angiogram. In: Richard G, ed. Fluorescein and ICG Angiography. Textbook and Atlas. New York: Thieme Verlag Medical Publishers, 1998:10–17.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benson RC, Kues HA. Fluorescence properties of indocyanine green as related to angiography. Phys Med Biol 1978;23: 159–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yannuzzi LA, Slakter JS, Sorenson JA, Guyer DR, Orlock DA. Digital indocyanine green videoangiography and choroidal neovascularization. Retina 1992;12:191–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sorenson JA, Yannuzzi LA, Slakter JS, Guyer DR, Ho AC, Orlock DA. A pilot study of digital indocyanine green videoangiography for recurrent occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 1994;112:473–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yannuzzi LA, Hope-Ross M, Slakter JS, et al. Analysis of vascularized pigment epithelial detachments using indocyanine green videoangiography. Retina 1994;14:99–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guyer DR, Yannuzzi LA, Slakter JS, Sorenson JA, Hope-Ross M, Orlock DR. Digital indocyanine-green videoangiography of occult choroidal neovascularization. Ophthalmology 1994;101:1727–1737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guyer DR, Puliafito CA, Mones JM, Friedman E, Chang W, Verdooner SR. Digital indocyanine-green angiography in chorioretinal disorders. Ophthalmology 1992;99:287–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dhaliwal RS, Maguire AM, Flower RW, Arribas NP. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy: an indocyanine green angiographic study. Retina 1993;13:317–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garcia-Saenz MC, Gili Manzanaro P, Banuelos Banuelos J, Villarejo Diaz-Maroto I, Arias Puente A. [Indocyanine green angiography in chorioretinal inflammatory diseases]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2003;78:675–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guyer DR, Yannuzzi LA, Slakter JS, Sorenson JA, Ho A, Qrlock D. Digital indocyanine green video angiography of central serous chorioretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1994;112:1057–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ie D, Glaser BM, Murphy RP, Gordon LW, Sjaarda RN, Thompson JT. Indocyanine green angiography in multiple evanescent whitedot syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;117:7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yuzawa M, Kawamura A, Matsui M. Indocyanine green video angiographic findings in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Acta Ophthalmol 1994;72:128–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shields CL, Shields JA, De Potter P. Patterns of indocyanine green videoangiography of choroidal tumours. Br J Ophthalmol 1995;79:237–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sallet G, Amoaku WMK, Lafaut BA, Brabant P, De Laey JJ. Indocyanine green angiography of choroidal tumors. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1995;233:677–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arevalo JF, Shields CL, Shields JA, Hykin PG, De Potter P. Circumscribed choroidal hemangioma: characteristics features with indocyanine green video-angiography. Ophthalmology 2000;107:344–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chan R, Tawansy KA, El-Helw Tamer, Foster CS, Carter BL. Diagnostic imaging studies for inflammatory systemic diseases with eye manifestations. In: Foster SF, Vitale AT, eds. Diagnosis and Treatment of Uveitis, 1st ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2002:104–139.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whitcup SM. Diagnostic testing. In: Nussenblatt RB, Whitcup SM, eds. Uveitis. Fundamentals and Clinical Practice, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2004:76–87.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arellanes L, Navarro P, Recillas C. Pars planitis in the Mexican Mestizo population: ocular findings, treatment and visual outcome. Ocular Immunol Inflamm 2003;11:53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Listhaus AD, Freeman WR. Fluorescein angiography in patients with posterior uveitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1990;30:297–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Michelson JB, Chisari FJ. Behçet’s disease. Surv Ophthalmol 1982;26:190–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Joondeph BC, Tessler HH. Multifocal choroiditis. Int Ophthalmolol Clin 1990;30:286–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fisher JP. The acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Clinical manifestations. Ophthalmology 1982;89:1309–1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Richard G. Inflammatory diseases of the retina and choroid. In: Richard G, ed. Fluorescein and ICG Angiography. Textbook and Atlas. New York: Thieme Verlag Medical Publishers, 1998: 252–277.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moorthy RS, Chong LP, Smith RE, Rao NA. Subretinal neovascular membranes in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;116:164–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Michelson JB. Cytomegalic virus inclusion disease. In: Michelson JB, ed. Color Atlas of Uveitis. St. Louis: Mosby, 1992:119–120.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gormam BD, Nadel AJ, Coles RS. Acute retinal necrosis. Ophthalmology 1992,89:809–814.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tsujikawa A, Yamashiro K, Yamamoto K, Nonaka A, Fujihara M, Kurimoto Y. Retinal cystoid spaces in acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;139: 670–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lewis H, Jampol LM. White dot syndromes. In: Pepose JS, Holland GN, Wilhelmus KR, eds. Ocular Infection and Immunity. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, 1996:560–569.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Berkow JW, Flower RW, Orth DH, Kelley JS. Miscellaneous conditions. In: Berkow JW, Flower RW, Orth DH, Kelley JS, eds. Fluorescein and Indocyanine Angiography, Technique and Interpretation, 2nd ed. 155–175.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Akpek EK, Baltatzis S, Yang J, et al. Long-term immunosuppressive treatment of serpiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2001;9:153–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nussenblatt RB. Serpiginous choroidopathy. In: Nussenblatt RB, Whitcup SM, eds. Uveitis. Fundamentals and Clinical Practice, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2004:76–87.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Monés JM, Slakter JS. Serpiginous choroidopathy. In: Yannuzzi LA, Flower RW, Slakter JS, eds. Indocyanine Green Angiography, 1st ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997:247–252.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chang B, Lumbroso L, Rabb MF, Yannuzzi LA. Birdshot chorioretinopathy. In: Yannuzzi LA, Flower RW, Slakter JS, eds. Indocyanine Green Angiography, 1st ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997:231–238.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cantrill HL, Folk JC. Multifocal choroiditis associated with progressive subretinal fibrosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1986;101:170–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Folk JC, Gehrs KM. Multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis, diffuse subretinal fibrosis, and punctate inner choroidopathy. In: Schachat AP, Ryan SJ, eds. Retina, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2001:1709–1720.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Slakter JS, Giovannini A. Multifocal choroiditis and the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome. In: Yannuzzi LA, Flower RW, Slakter JS, eds. Indocyanine Green Angiography, 1st ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997:271–278.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tiffin PA, Maini R, Roxburgh ST, Ellingford A. Indocyanine green angiography in a case of punctate inner choroidopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 1996;80:90–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nussenblatt RB. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. In: Nussenblatt RB, Whitcup SM, eds. Uveitis. Fundamentals and Clinical Practice, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2004:324–338.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Freund BK, Yannuzzi LA. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. In: Yannuzzi LA, Flower RW, Slakter JS, eds. Indocyanine Green Angiography, 1st ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997:259–269.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bozzoni-Pantaleoni F, Gharbiya M, Pirraglia MP, Accorinti M, Pivetti-Pezzi P. Indocyanine green angiographic findings in Behcet disease. Retina 2001;21:230–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cochereau-Massin I, LeHoang P, Lautier-Frau M, et al. Ocular toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;114:130–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Auer C, Bernasconi O, Herbort CP. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis: new insights provided by indocyanine green angiography. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;123:131–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Holland GN, Pepose JS, Pettit TH, et al. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: ocular manifestations. Ophthalmology 1983;90:859–873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kuppermann BD, Petty JG, Richman DD, et al. Correlation between CD4+ counts and prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and human immunodeficiency virus-related noninfectious retinal vasculopathy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;115:575–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lowder CY, Butler CP, Dodds EM, Secic M, Recillas C, Gilbert C. CD8+ lymphocytes and cytomegalovirus in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1995;120:283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gangan PA, Besen G, Munguia D, Freeman WR. Macular serous exudation in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118:212–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Karavellas MP, Lowder CY, Macdonald JC, Avila CP, Freeman WR. Immune recovery vitreitis associated with inactive cytomegalovirus retinitis: a new syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1998;116:169–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Palestine AG, Frishberg B. Macular edema in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related microvasculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;111:770–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Weinberg DV, Moorthy RS. Cystoid macular edema due to cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Retina 1996;16:343–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Maguire AM, Nichols CW, Crooks GW. Visual loss in cytomegalovirus retinitis caused by cystoid macular edema in patients without the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology 1996;103:601–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Arevalo JF, Fuenmayor-Rivera D. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related choroidopathy: indocyanine green video-angiography findings in AIDS patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Arch AAOO 2000;28:15–23.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Carney MD, Combs JL, Waschler W. Cryptococcal choroiditis. Retina 1990;10:27–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Arevalo JF, Fuenmayor-Rivera D, Giral AE, Murcia E. Indocyanine green videoangiography of multifocal Cryptococcus neoformans choroiditis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Retina 2001;21:537–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Fernando Arevalo
    • 1
  • Reinaldo A. Garcia
    • 1
  • Lourdes Arellanes-Garcia
    • 2
  • Jans Fromow-Guerra
    • 3
  1. 1.Retina and Vitreous Service, Clinica Oftalmológica Centro CaracasArevalo-Coutinho Foundation for Research in OphthalmologyCaracasVenezuela
  2. 2.Uveitis and Intraocular Inflammation ServiceAsociación para la Prevención de la CegueraMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Retina and Vitreous ServiceAsociación para la Prevención de la CegueraMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations