Indocyanine Green Angiography: General Aspects and Interpretation

  • Christina M. Klais
  • Michael D. Ober
  • Lawrence A. Yannuzzi

More than three decades ago, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) was introduced into ophthalmology. The relatively poor fluorescence efficiency of the indocyanine green (ICG) molecule and its limited ability to produce high-resolution images on infrared film initially restricted its angiographic application; however, ICG has subsequently been found to have several advantages over sodium fluorescein, especially in imaging choroidal vasculature. The emergence of high-resolution infrared digital imaging systems, specifically designed for ICGA and a growing awareness of choroidal vascular lesions has led to a resurgence of interest in ICGA.1 The applications of ICGA continue to grow in number; the full extent of its capabilities is not yet known.


Retinal Pigment Epithelium Fluorescein Angiography Indocyanine Green Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Indocyanine Green Angiography 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina M. Klais
    • 1
  • Michael D. Ober
    • 1
  • Lawrence A. Yannuzzi
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.LuEsther T. Mertz Retinal Research Center, Department of OphthalmologyManhattan Eye, Ear and Throat HospitalNew York
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyColumbia University School of MedicineUSA
  3. 3.Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat HospitalVitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New YorkNew York

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