Internal Medicine

  • Ahmad Wagih Abdel-Halim


Pituitary Gland

Parts and Actions

  • Anterior pituitary: Releases FSH, LH, GH, TSH, ACTH and Prolactin (GH and prolactin are released from acidophil cells; everything else from basophil cells).

  • Posterior pituitary:
    1. 1.

      Supra-optic nucleus: Releases Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) which acts on intercalated cells of the kidneys via V2 receptors, and on blood vessels via V1.

    2. 2.

      Paraventricular nucleus: Releases oxytocin, which stimulates the contraction of the uterus, and muscles surrounding the mammary glands’ acini.



  • Introduction:
    1. 1.

      Prolactin release is inhibited by dopamine and dopamine agonists.

    2. 2.

      Normal serum prolactin level is less than 20 ng/mL (During pregnancy, a level up to 200 ng/mL is still considered normal).

  • Causes:
    1. 1.

      Physiological: Pregnancy and lactation.

    2. 2.

      Pituitary: Chromophobe adenoma and Empty Sella Syndrome.

    3. 3.

      Endocrinal: Hypothyroidism and Chronic renal failure.

    4. 4.

      Drugs: Anti-Psychotics; via inhibition of dopamine.

  • Clinic...


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Clinical Picture Iron Deficiency Anemia 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McLaren Regional Medical CenterFlintUSA

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