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Internal Medicine

  • Ahmad Wagih Abdel-Halim
Chapter

Endocrinology

Pituitary Gland

Parts and Actions

  • Anterior pituitary: Releases FSH, LH, GH, TSH, ACTH and Prolactin (GH and prolactin are released from acidophil cells; everything else from basophil cells).

  • Posterior pituitary:
    1. 1.

      Supra-optic nucleus: Releases Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) which acts on intercalated cells of the kidneys via V2 receptors, and on blood vessels via V1.

       
    2. 2.

      Paraventricular nucleus: Releases oxytocin, which stimulates the contraction of the uterus, and muscles surrounding the mammary glands’ acini.

       

Hyperprolactinemia

  • Introduction:
    1. 1.

      Prolactin release is inhibited by dopamine and dopamine agonists.

       
    2. 2.

      Normal serum prolactin level is less than 20 ng/mL (During pregnancy, a level up to 200 ng/mL is still considered normal).

       
  • Causes:
    1. 1.

      Physiological: Pregnancy and lactation.

       
    2. 2.

      Pituitary: Chromophobe adenoma and Empty Sella Syndrome.

       
    3. 3.

      Endocrinal: Hypothyroidism and Chronic renal failure.

       
    4. 4.

      Drugs: Anti-Psychotics; via inhibition of dopamine.

       
  • Clinic...

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Clinical Picture Iron Deficiency Anemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McLaren Regional Medical CenterFlintUSA

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