Chromosomes and Genes
Chromosome: Each chromosome is formed of two parallel chromatids attached to each other by the centromere. Each chromatid is formed of a short and a long segment.
Diploid: Each human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes (diploid cells), divided into 44 autosomal chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes.
Haploid: Each human gamete cell contains only 23 chromosomes (haploid cells).
Gene: It is a segment in the chromatid. Its mirror image on the other chromatid of the same chromosome is known as allele.
It is a method used to visualize and evaluate the chromosomes and their disorders.
Technique: Lymphocytes are taken from the blood and are cultured in a cell excitatory medium. The cell cycle is arrested artificially at the metaphase of mitosis, where chromosomes are extracted and examined.
It is an inactivated X chromosome. Any cell in the human body should contain no more than one functioning X chromosome at a time. Any extraX chromosome is referred...