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Genetics

  • Ahmad Wagih Abdel (Halim)
Chapter

Chromosomes and Genes

  • Chromosome: Each chromosome is formed of two parallel chromatids attached to each other by the centromere. Each chromatid is formed of a short and a long segment.

  • Diploid: Each human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes (diploid cells), divided into 44 autosomal chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes.

  • Haploid: Each human gamete cell contains only 23 chromosomes (haploid cells).

  • Gene: It is a segment in the chromatid. Its mirror image on the other chromatid of the same chromosome is known as allele.

Karyotyping

  • It is a method used to visualize and evaluate the chromosomes and their disorders.

  • Technique: Lymphocytes are taken from the blood and are cultured in a cell excitatory medium. The cell cycle is arrested artificially at the metaphase of mitosis, where chromosomes are extracted and examined.

Barr Body

  • It is an inactivated X chromosome. Any cell in the human body should contain no more than one functioning X chromosome at a time. Any extraX chromosome is referred...

Keywords

Down Syndrome Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Lynch Syndrome Turner Syndrome Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McLaren Regional Medical CenterFlintUSA

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