Public Health

  • Ahmad Wagih Abdel (Halim)


  • Primary: Prevent disease occurrence

  • Secondary: Early detection of the disease

  • Tertiary: Reduce disability and complications from the disease

Epidemiologic Studies

Cross-Sectional Study

  • Used for measuring the prevalence of a disease; usually chronic

  • Advantages: Cheap, easy, and quick

  • Disadvantages:
    1. 1.

      Not appropriate for short-term diseases

    2. 2.

      Chicken-or-egg dilemma


Case-Control Study

  • A retrospective study

  • Advantages: Easy, cheap, and simple

  • Disadvantages: Recall bias, and failure to calculate risk ratio

Cohort Study

  • A prospective study, e.g., Framingham study

  • Advantages: Used to measure incidence rates of a disease

  • Disadvantages: Needs a large sample size; time-consuming and expensive.

Clinical Trial

  • Patients are divided into two groups:
    1. 1.

      Experimental: Take a new medication

    2. 2.

      Control: Take a placebo

  • Blinding: May be single blind (patient does not know), double blind (patient and investigator do not know), or triple blind (patient, investigator, and analyzer do...


Anorexia Nervosa Human Leukocyte Antigen Bacterial Vaginosis Testicular Cancer Medicare Part 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McLaren Regional Medical CenterFlintUSA

Personalised recommendations