• Ahmad Wagih Abdel (Halim)

Cell Reactions

  • Nucleus: DNA and RNA synthesis

  • Cytoplasm: Glycolysis, hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt, fatty acid synthesis

  • Mitochondria: Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid oxidation, pyruvate decarboxylation

  • Lysosomes: Degradation


  • Types:
    1. 1.

      Intracellular: Thyroid hormone, steroids, and vitamin D

    2. 2.

      Ligand gated ion channel: Nicotine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine

    3. 3.

      Tyrosine kinase linked: Insulin

    4. 4.

      Adenylate cyclase linked: Epinephrine, alpha-2 and beta receptors

    5. 5.

      Phosphatidyl-inositol linked: Alpha-1 receptors and growth hormone


G-Protein Receptors

  • Examples:Adenylate cyclase and phosphatidyl-inositol linked receptors

  • Mechanism: The alpha subunit of G proteins activates protein kinase G.Protein kinase G synthesis is stimulated by the short-acting nitric oxide; however, they are always short acting due to the inhibitory effect of guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase).

  • Note:Nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis...


Fabry Disease Glycogen Storage Disease Pyruvate Carboxylase Glycogen Phosphorylase Orotic Acid 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McLaren Regional Medical CenterFlintUSA

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