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Biochemistry

  • Ahmad Wagih Abdel (Halim)
Chapter

Cell Reactions

  • Nucleus: DNA and RNA synthesis

  • Cytoplasm: Glycolysis, hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt, fatty acid synthesis

  • Mitochondria: Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid oxidation, pyruvate decarboxylation

  • Lysosomes: Degradation

Receptors

  • Types:
    1. 1.

      Intracellular: Thyroid hormone, steroids, and vitamin D

       
    2. 2.

      Ligand gated ion channel: Nicotine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine

       
    3. 3.

      Tyrosine kinase linked: Insulin

       
    4. 4.

      Adenylate cyclase linked: Epinephrine, alpha-2 and beta receptors

       
    5. 5.

      Phosphatidyl-inositol linked: Alpha-1 receptors and growth hormone

       

G-Protein Receptors

  • Examples:Adenylate cyclase and phosphatidyl-inositol linked receptors

  • Mechanism: The alpha subunit of G proteins activates protein kinase G.Protein kinase G synthesis is stimulated by the short-acting nitric oxide; however, they are always short acting due to the inhibitory effect of guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase).

  • Note:Nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis...

Keywords

Fabry Disease Glycogen Storage Disease Pyruvate Carboxylase Glycogen Phosphorylase Orotic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McLaren Regional Medical CenterFlintUSA

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