Compressive and Infiltrative Optic Neuropathies

  • Jane W. Chan


In contrast to the meningiomas from intracranial extension or the ectopic orbital ones, primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) arise from the intraorbital optic nerve sheath and grow circumferentially around the optic nerve to result in an optic neuropathy by interfering with axonal transport and pial blood supply to the nerve. They constitute 1% to 2% of all meningiomas and account for one-third of all primary optic nerve tumors. They are also the second most common optic nerve tumor after glioma.1 Only 10% of ONSM arise from the orbit, compared to 90% from intracranial extension. More than 90% of ONSM develop in the orbital optic nerve rather than in the canalicular portion.2


Optic Nerve Pituitary Adenoma Optic Neuropathy Optic Chiasm Optic Canal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cushing H, Eisenhardt L. Meningiomas: their classification, rational behavior, life history, and surgical end results. Springfield: Thomas; 1938.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wilson WB. Meningiomas of the anterior visual system. Surv Ophthalmol 1981;26(3):109–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dutton JJ. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Surv Ophthalmol 1992;37(3):167–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cunliffe IA, Moffat DA, Hardy DG, Moore AT. Bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76(5):310–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarkies NJ. Optic nerve sheath meningioma: diagnostic features and therapeutic alternatives. Eye 1987;1(pt 5):597–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wright JE, McNab AA, McDonald WI. Primary optic nerve sheath meningioma. Br J Ophthalmol 1989;73(12):960–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sibony PA, Krauss HR, Kennerdell JS, Maroon JC, Slamovits TL. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Clinical manifestations. Ophthalmology 1984;91(11):1313–1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Trobe JD, Glaser JS, Post JD, Page LK. Bilateral optic canal meningiomas: a case report. Neurosurgery 1978;3(1):68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alper MG. Management of primary optic nerve meningiomas. Current status: therapy in controversy. J Clin Neuro-Ophthalmol 1981;1(2): 101–117.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hart WM Jr, Burde RM, Klingele TG, Perlmutter JC. Bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98(1):149–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liano H, Garcia-Alix C, Lousa M, Marquez M, Nombela L, de Miguel J. Bilateral optic nerve meningioma. Eur Neurol 1982;21(2):102–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mark LE, Kennerdell JS, Maroon JC, Rosenbaum AE, Heinz R, Johnson BL. Microsurgical removal of a primary intraorbital meningioma. Am J Ophthalmol 1978;86(5):704–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jakobiec FA, Depot MJ, Kennerdell JS, et al. Combined clinical and computed tomographic diagnosis of orbital glioma and meningioma. Ophthalmology 1984;91(2):137–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tien RD, Chu PK, Hesselink JR, Szumowski J. Intra and paraorbital lesions: value of fatsuppression MR imaging with paramagnetic contrast enhancement. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1991;12(2):245–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dutton JJ, Anderson RL. Idiopathic inflammatory perioptic neuritis simulating optic nerve sheath meningioma. Am J Ophthalmol 1985; 100(3):424–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ing EB, Garrity JA, Cross SA, Ebersold MJ. Sarcoid masquerading as optic nerve sheath meningioma. Mayo Clin Proc 1997;72(1):38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liauw L, Vielvoye GJ, de Keizer RJ, van Duinen SG. Optic nerve glioma mimicking an optic nerve meningioma. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1996;98(3):258–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nerad JA, Kersten RC, Anderson RL. Hemangioblastoma of the optic nerve. Report of a case and review of literature. Ophthalmology 1988; 95(3):398–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rubio A, Meyers SP, Powers JM, Nelson CN, de Papp EW. Hemangioblastoma of the optic nerve. Hum Pathol 1994;25(11):1249–1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kleihues P, Burger PC, Scheithauer BW. The new WHO classification of brain tumours. Brain Pathol 1993;3(3):255–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Samples JR, Robertson DM, Taylor JZ, Waller RR. Optic nerve meningioma. Ophthalmology 1983;90(12):1591–1594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wright JE. Primary optic nerve meningiomas: clinical presentation and management. Trans Sect Ophthalmol Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1977;83(4 pt 1):617–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Als E. Intraorbital meningiomas encasing the optic nerve. A report of two cases. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1969;47(4):900–903.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spencer WH. Primary neoplasms of the optic nerve and its sheaths: clinical features and current concepts of pathogenetic mechanisms. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1972;70:490–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kayan A, Earl CJ. Compressive lesions of the optic nerves and chiasm. Pattern of recovery of vision following surgical treatment. Brain 1975;98(1):13–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Egan RA, Lessell S. A contribution to the natural history of optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120(11):1505–1508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saeed P, Rootman J, Nugent RA, White VA, Mackenzie IR, Koornneef L. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Ophthalmology 2003;110(10): 2019–2030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andrews DW, Faroozan R, Yang BP, et al. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningiomas: preliminary observations of 33 optic nerves in 30 patients with historical comparison to observation with or without prior surgery. Neurosurgery 2002;51(4):890–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pitz S, Becker G, Schiefer U, et al. Stereotactic fractionated irradiation of optic nerve sheath meningioma: a new treatment alternative. Br J Ophthalmol 2002;86(11):1265–1268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Narayan S, Cornblath WT, Sandler HM, Elner V, Hayman JA. Preliminary visual outcomes after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for optic nerve sheath meningioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;56(2):537–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Subramanian PS, Bressler NM, Miller NR. Radiation retinopathy after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for optic nerve sheath meningioma. Ophthalmology 2004;111(3): 565–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Girkin CA, Comey CH, Lunsford LD, Goodman ML, Kline LB. Radiation optic neuropathy after stereotactic radiosurgery. Ophthalmology 1997;104(10):1634–1643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stafford SL, Pollock BE, Leavitt JA, et al. A study on the radiation tolerance of the optic nerves and chiasm after stereotactic radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55(5): 1177–1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guyer DR, Miller NR, Long DM, Allen GS. Visual function following optic canal decompression via craniotomy. J Neurosurg 1985; 62(5):631–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schrell UM, Rittig MG, Anders M, et al. Hydroxyurea for treatment of unresectable and recurrent meningiomas. II. Decrease in the size of meningiomas in patients treated with hydroxyurea. J Neurosurg 1997;86(5):840–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Paus S, Klockgether T, Urbach H, Schlegel U. Meningioma of the optic nerve sheath: treatment with hydroxyurea. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74(9):1348–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grunberg SM, Weiss MH, Spitz IM, Ahmadi J, Sadun A, Russell CA, Lucci L, Stevenson LL. Treatment of unresectable meningiomas with the antiprogesterone agent mifepristone. J Neurosurg 1991;74(6):861–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shields JA. Optic nerve and meningeal tumors. In: Shields JA, editor. Diagnosis and management of orbital tumors. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1989:170–191.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bartley GB, Fatourechi V, Kadrmas EF, et al. The incidence of Graves’ ophthalmopathy in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Am J Ophthalmol 1995;120:511–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Friedman JM, Fialkow PJ. The genetics of Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1978;7(1):47–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Feldon SE, Muramatsu S, Weiner JM. Clinical classification of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Identification of risk factors for optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1984;102(10):1469–1472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kennerdell JS, Rosenbaum AE, El-Hoshy MH. Apical optic nerve compression of dysthyroid optic neuropathy on computed tomography. Arch Ophthalmol 1981;99(5):807–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barrett L, Glatt HJ, Burde RM, Gado MH. Optic nerve dysfunction in thyroid eye disease: CT. Radiology 1988;167(2):503–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Trobe JD, Glaser JS, Laflamme P. Dysthyroid optic neuropathy. Clinical profile and rationale for management. Arch Ophthalmol 1978;96(7): 1199–1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Glaser JS. The orbit and neuro-ophthalmology. Semin Neurol 1986;6(2):124–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Newell FW. Choroidal folds. The seventh Harry Searls Gradle Memorial lecture. Am J Ophthalmol 1973;75(6):930–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cangemi FE, Trempe CL, Walsh JB. Choroidal folds. Am J Ophthalmol 1978;86(3):380–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    De La Paz MA, Boniuk M. Fundus manifestations of orbital disease and treatment of orbital disease. Surv Ophthalmol 1995;40(1):3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McKenzie JM, McCullagh EP. Observations against a causal relationship between the longacting thyroid stimulator and ophthalmopathy in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1968;28(8):1177–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Atta HR, McCreath G, McKillop JH, et al. Ophthalmopathy in early thyrotoxicosis: relationship to thyroid receptor antibodies and effects of treatment. Scott Med J 1990;35(2):41–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wiersinga WM, Smit T, van der Gaag R, Koornneef L. Temporal relationship between onset of Graves’ ophthalmopathy and onset of thyroidal Graves’ disease. J Endocrinol Invest 1988;11(8):615–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sergott RC, Glaser JS. Graves’ ophthalmopathy. A clinical and immunologic review. Surv Ophthalmol 1981;26(1):1–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sridama V, DeGroot LJ. Treatment of Graves’ disease and the course of ophthalmopathy. Am J Med 1989;87(1):70–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hallin ES, Feldon SE. Graves’ ophthalmopathy: I. Simple CT estimates of extraocular muscle volume. Br J Ophthalmol 1988;72(9):674–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jacobson DH, Gorman CA. Endocrine ophthalmopathy: current ideas concerning etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Endocr Rev 1984;5(2):200–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hufnagel TJ, Hickey WF, Cobbs WH, Jakobiec FA, Iwamoto T, Eagle RC. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies on the exenterated orbital tissues of a patient with Graves’ disease. Ophthalmology 1984;91(11): 1411–1419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jakobiec FA, Font RL. Orbit. In: Spencer WH, editor. Ophthalmic pathology, vol. 3, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1986.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wakelkamp IM, Baldeschi L, Saeed P, Mourits MP, Prummel MF, Wiersinga WM. Surgical or medical decompression as a first-line treatment of optic neuropathy in Graves’ ophthalmopathy? A randomized controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005;63(3):323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Marcocci C, Bartalena L, Tanda ML, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness and tolerability of intravenous or oral glucocorticoids associated with orbital radiotherapy in the management of severe Graves’ ophthalmopathy: results of a prospective, single-blind, randomized study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86(8):3562–3567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Marcocci C, Bartalena L, Bogazzi F, BrunoBossio G, Lepri A, Pinchera A. Orbital radiotherapy combined with high dose systemic glucocorticoids for Graves’ ophthalmopathy is more effective than radiotherapy alone: results of a prospective randomized study. J Endocrinol Invest 1991;14(10):853–860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Carter KD, Frueh BR, Hessburg TP, Musch DC. Long-term efficacy of orbital decompression for compressive optic neuropathy of Graves’ eye disease. Ophthalmology 1991;98(9):1435–1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hallin ES, Feldon SE, Luttrell J. Graves’ ophthalmopathy: III. Effect of transantral orbital decompression on optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol 1988;72(9):683–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shorr N, Neuhaus RW, Baylis HI. Ocular motility problems after orbital decompression for dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology 1982;89(4):323–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Young JD. Ocular complications of transantral decompression for thyrotrophic exophthalmos. Proc R Soc Med 1971;64(9):929–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stiglmayer N, Mladina R, Tomic M, et al. Endonasal endoscopic orbital decompression in patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Croat Med J 2004;45(3):318–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shepard KG, Levin PS, Terris DJ. Balanced orbital decompression for Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Laryngoscope 1998;108(11 pt 1): 1648–1653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jacobiec FA, Jones IS. Orbital inflammations. In: Jones IS, Jakobiec FA, editors. Disease of the orbit. Hagerstown: Harper and Row; 1979.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Curtin HD. Pseudotumor. Radiol Clin N Am 1987;25(3):583–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Atlas SW, Grossman RI, Savino PJ, et al. Surface-coil MR of orbital pseudotumor. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1987;148(4):803–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Richardson GS. Pituitary tumors. In: Samuels MA, Feske SK, editors. Office practice of neurology. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2003.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Trobe JD. Chromophobe adenoma presenting with a hemianopic temporal arcuate scotoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1974;77(3):388–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hoyt WF, Rios-Montenegro EN, Behrens MM, Eckelhoff RJ. Homonymous hemioptic hypoplasia. Fundoscopic features in standard and red-free illumination in three patients with congenital hemiplegia. Br J Ophthalmol 1972; 56(7):537–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gittinger JW Jr. Tumors of the pituitary gland. In: Miller NR, Newman NJ, editors. Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology, 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999. p. 2141–2222.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tokumaru AM, Sakata I, Terada H, Kosuda S, Nawashiro H, Yoshii M. Optic nerve hyperintensity on T2-weighted images among patients with pituitary macroadenoma: correlation with visual impairment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2006;27(2):250–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Peter M, De Tribolet N. Visual outcome after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. Br J Neurosurg 1995;9(2):151–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Randeva HS, Schoebel J, Byrne J, Esiri M, Adams CB, Wass JA. Classical pituitary apoplexy: clinical features, management and outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1999;51(2): 181–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    McFadzean RM, Doyle D, Rampling R, Teasdale E, Teasdale G. Pituitary apoplexy and its effect on vision. Neurosurgery 1991;29(5): 669–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Muller-Jensen A, Ludecke D. Clinical aspects of spontaneous necrosis of pituitary tumors (pituitary apoplexy). J Neurol 1981;224(4): 267–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ahmed M, Rifai A, Al-Jurf M, Akhtar M, Woodhouse N. Classical pituitary apoplexy presentation and a follow-up of 13 patients. Horm Res 1989;31(3):125–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cardoso ER, Peterson EW. Pituitary apoplexy: a review. Neurosurgery 1984;14(3):363–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Symon L, Rosenstein J. tSurgical management of suprasellar meningioma. Part 1: The influence of tumor size, duration of symptoms, and microsurgery on surgical outcome in 101 consecutive cases. J Neurosurg 1984;61(4):633–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Huber A. Eye signs and symptoms in brain tumors, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1976.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rosenberg LF, Miller NR. Visual results after microsurgical removal of meningiomas involving the anterior visual system. Arch Ophthalmol 1984;102(7):1019–1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chicani CF, Miller NR. Visual outcome in surgically treated suprasellar meningiomas. J Neuro Ophthalmol 2003;23(1):3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    O’Connell JE, DuBoulay EP. Binasalhemianopia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1973;36(5): 697–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Weisberg LA, Numuguchi Y. Neuroimaging in neuroendocrine diseases. Neurol Clin 1986;4(4): 783–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Demailly P, Guiot G. Meningioma of the sellar diaphragm. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1970;70(2): 191–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Guiot G, Montrieul B, Goutelle A, Comoy J, Langie S. Retro-chiasmatic suprasellar meningiomas. Neurochirurgie 1970;16(4):273–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Boulos PT, Dumont AS, Mandell JW, Jane JA Sr. Meningiomas of the orbit: contemporary considerations. Neurosurg Focus 2001;10(5):E5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gregorius FK, Hepler RS, Stern WE. Loss and recovery of vision with suprasellar meningiomas. J Neurosurg 1975;42(1):69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rosenstein J, Symon L. Surgical management of suprasellar meningioma. Part 2: Prognosis for visual function following craniotomy. J Neurosurg 1984;61(4):642–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jaaskelainen J. Seemingly complete removal of histologically benign intracranial meningioma: late recurrence rate and factors predicting recurrence in 657 patients. A multivariate analysis. Surg Neurol 1986;26(5):461–469.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kajiwara K, Fudaba H, Tsuha M, et al. Analysis of recurrences of meningiomas following neurosurgical resection. No Shinkei Geka 1989;17(12):1125–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Marks SM, Whitwell HL, Lye RH. Recurrence of meningiomas after operation. Surg Neurol 1986;25(5):436–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mirimanoff RO, Dosoretz DE, Linggood RM, Ojemann RG, Martuza RL. Meningioma: analysis of recurrence and progression following neurosurgical resection. JNeurosurg 1985;62(1): 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Carella RJ, Ransohoff J, Newall J. Role of radiation therapy in the management of meningioma. Neurosurgery 1982;10(3):332–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Goldsmith BJ, Wara WM, Wilson CB, Larson DA. Postoperative irradiation for subtotally resected meningiomas. A retrospective analysis of 140 patients treated from 1967 to 1990. J Neurosurg 1994;80(2):195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lunsford LD. Contemporary management of meningiomas: radiation therapy as an adjuvant and radiosurgery as an alternative to surgical removal? J Neurosurg 1994;80(2): 187–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miralbell R, Linggood RM, de la Monte S, Convery K, Munzenrider JE, Mirimanoff RO. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of subtotally resected benign meningiomas. J Neuro-Oncol 1992;13(2):157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wilson CB. Meningiomas: genetics, malignancy, and the role of radiation in induction and treatment. The Richard C. Schneider Lecture. JNeurosurg 1994;81(5):666–675.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    De Monte F. Current management of meningiomas. Oncology (Williston Park) 1995;9(1): 83–91, 96.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    De Jesus O, Toledo MM. Surgical management of meningioma en plaque of the sphenoid ridge. Surg Neurol 2001;55(5):265–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Morita A, Coffey RJ, Foote RL, Schiff D, Gorman D. Risk of injury to cranial nerves after gamma knife radiosurgery for skull base meningiomas: experience in 88 patients. J Neurosurg 1999;90(1):42–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schick U, Bleyen J, Bani A, Hassler W. Management of meningiomas en plaque of the sphenoid wing. J Neurosurg 2006;104(2): 208–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bartlett JR. Craniopharyngiomas. An analysis of some aspects of symptomatology, radiology and histology. Brain 1971;94(4):725–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cabezudo JM, Vaquero J, Areitio E, Martinez R, de Sola RG, Bravo G. Craniopharyngiomas: a critical approach to treatment. J Neurosurg 1981;55(3):371–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Onodera J, Kanno C, Okuyama S. Childhood exotropia with craniopharyngioma: report of a case analysis of 13 patients with childhood craniopharyngioma. Folia Ophthalmol Jpn 1993;44:214–218.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Baskin DS, Wilson CB. Surgical management of craniopharyngiomas. A review of 74 cases. J Neurosurg 1986;65(1):22–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Barreca T, Perria C, Franceschini R, et al. Diurnal prolactin changes in human cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1984;20(6): 649–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Cusimano MD, Kovacs K, Bilbao JM, Tucker WS, Singer W. Suprasellar craniopharyngioma associated with hyperprolactinemia, pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia, and microprolactinoma. J Neurosurg 1988;69(4):620–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Cherninkova S, Tzekov H, Karakostov V. Comparative ophthalmologic studies on children and adults with craniopharyngiomas. Ophthalmologica 1990;201(4):201–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Matson DD, Crigler JF Jr. Management of craniopharyngioma in childhood. J Neurosurg 1969;30(4):377–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Waga S, Morikawa A, Sakakura M. Craniopharyngioma with midbrain involvement. Arch Neurol 1979;36(5):319–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Inagaki M, Suzuki T, Nakano N, Sekimoto S, Ishikawa H, Kitano S. Analysis of two types of seesaw nystagmus. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 1983;87(7):498–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Osborne AG. Miscellaneous tumors, cysts, and metastases. In: Osborne AG. Diagnostic neuroradiology. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book; 1994.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Arseni C, Maretsis M. Craniopharyngioma. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 1972;15(1):25–32.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Adamson TE, Wiestler OD, Kleihues P, Yasargil MG. Correlation of clinical and pathological features in surgically treated craniopharyngiomas. J Neurosurg 1990;73(1):12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kalapurakal JA. Radiation therapy in the management of pediatric craniopharyngiomas: a review. Childs Nerv Syst 2005;21(8–9): 808–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Repka MX, Miller NR, Miller M. Visual outcome after surgical removal of craniopharyngiomas. Ophthalmology 1989;96(2):195–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jacobson DM. Symptomatic compression of the optic nerve by the carotid artery: clinical profile of 18 patients with 24 affected eyes identified by magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmology 1999;106(10):1994–2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Caprioli J, Fagadau W, Lesser R. Acute monocular visual loss secondary to anterior communicating artery aneurysm in a patient with sickle cell disease. Ann Ophthalmol 1983;15(9): 873–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Chan JW, Hoyt WF, Ellis WG, Gress D. Pathogenesis of acute monocular blindness from leaking anterior communicating artery aneurysms: report of six cases. Neurology 1997;48(3): 680–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Date I, Akioka T, Ohmoto T. Penetration of the optic chiasm by a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. J Neurosurg 1997; 87(2):324–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Durston JH, Parsons-Smith BG. Blindness due to aneurysm of anterior communicating artery. With recovery following carotid ligation. Br J Ophthalmol 1970;54(3):170–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Höök O, Norlén G. Aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Acta Neurol Scand 1964; 40:219–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Peiris JB, Ross Russell RW. Giant aneurysms of the carotid system presenting as visual field defect. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980; 43(12):1053–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Norwood EG, Kline LB, Chandra-Sekar B, Harsh GR III. Aneurysmal compression of the anterior visual pathways. Neurology 1986;36(8): 1035–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cunningham RD, Sewell JJ. Aneurysm of the ophthalmic artery with drusen of the optic nerve head. Am J Ophthalmol 1971;72(4): 743–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Stern WH, Ernest JT. Intracranial ophthalmic artery aneurysm. Am J Ophthalmol 1975;80(2): 203–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Parkinson D, Jain KK, Johnston JB. Saccular aneurysm of the ophthalmic artery: report of an unusual case. Can J Surg 1961;4:229–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kikuchi K, Kowada M. Case report: saccular aneurysm of the intraorbital ophthalmic artery. Br J Radiol 1994;67(803):1134–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rubinstein MK, Wilson G, Levin DC. Intraorbital aneurysms of the ophthalmic artery. Report of a unique case and review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol 1968;80(1):42–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jea A, Baskaya MK, Morcos JJ. Penetration of the optic nerve by an internal carotid arteryophthalmic artery aneurysm: case report and literature review. Neurosurgery 2003;53(4): 996–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Beatty RA. Splitting of the optic nerve by a carotid-ophthalmic artery aneurysm. J Neurosurg 1986;65(4):560–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Yanaka K, Matsumaru Y, Kamezaki T, Nose T. Ruptured aneurysm of the ophthalmic artery trunk demonstrated by three-dimensional rotational angiography: case report. Neurosurgery 2002;51(4):1066–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Fujita A, Tamaki N, Yasuo K, Nagashima T, Ehara K. Complete penetration of the optic chiasm by an unruptured aneurysm of the ophthalmic segment: case report. Surg Neurol 2002;57(2):130–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Barat JL, Marchal JC, Bracard S, Auque J, Lepoire J. Mucoceles of the sphenoidal sinus. Report of six cases and review of the literature. J Neuroradiol 1990;17(2):135–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hamard H, Sales MJ, Labetoulle C, Chodkiewicz JP, Roux F. Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinus and their ophthalmological manifestations. J Fr Ophtalmol 1985;8(10):645–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bregeat P. Ophthalmic manifestations of sphenoidal mucoceles. Ann Ophthalmol 1977;9(3): 259–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kosling S, Hintner M, Brandt S, Schulz T, Bloching M. Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinus. Eur J Radiol 2004;51(1):1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Chen HJ, Kao LY, Lui CC. Mucocele of the sphenoid sinus with the apex orbitae syndrome. Surg Neurol 1986;25(1):101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Moriyama H, Hesaka H, Tachibana T, Honda Y. Mucoceles of ethmoid and sphenoid sinus with visual disturbance. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1992;118(2):142–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pompili A, Mastrostefano R, Caroli F, et al. Mucocele of neurosurgical interest: clinical considerations on five cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1990;102(3–4):114–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Casteels I, De Loof E, Brock P, et al. Sudden blindness in a child: presenting symptom of a sphenoid sinus mucocele. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76(8):502–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    el-Fiki ME, Abdel-Fattah HM, el-Deeb AK. Sphenoid sinus mucopyocele with marked intracranial extension: a more common phenomenon in the Third World? Surg Neurol 1993;39(2):115–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Yamaguchi K, Ohnuma I, Takahashi S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute optic neuropathy by sphenoidal mucocele. Int Ophthalmol 1997;21(1):9–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Valvassori GE, Putterman AM. Ophthalmological and radiological findings in sphenoidal mucoceles. Arch Ophthalmol 1973;90(6): 456–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hejazi N, Witzmann A, Hassler W. Ocular manifestations of sphenoid mucoceles: clinical features and neurosurgical management of three cases and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 2001;56(5):338–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Johnson LN, Hepler RS, Yee RD, Batzdorf U. Sphenoid sinus mucocele (anterior clinoid variant) mimicking diabetic ophthalmoplegia and retrobulbar neuritis. Am J Ophthalmol 1986;102(1):111–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Finney HL, Roberts TS. Fibrous dysplasia of the skull with progressive cranial nerve involvement. Surg Neurol 1976;6(6):341–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Jackson IT, Hide TA, Gomuwka PK, Laws ER Jr, Langford K. Treatment of cranio-orbital fibrous dysplasia. J Maxillofac Surg 198210(3): 138–141.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Liakos GM, Walker CB, Carruth JA. Ocular complications in craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. Br J Ophthalmol 1979;63(9):611–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mochimatsu Y, Kuwana N, Fujino H. Experience in optic canal decompression in fibrous dysplasia. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 1983; 23(3):227–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Saito K, Suzuki Y, Nehashi K, Sugita K. Unilateral extradural approach for bilateral optic canal release in a patient with fibrous dysplasia. Surg Neurol 1990;34(2):124–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Arroyo JG, Lessell S, Montgomery WW. Steroidinduced visual recovery in fibrous dysplasia. J Clin Neuro-Ophthalmol 1991;11(4):259–261.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bocca G, de Vries J, Cruysberg JR, Boers GH, Monnens LA. Optic neuropathy in McCune Albright syndrome: an indication for aggressive treatment. Acta Paediatr 1998;87(5):599–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Mahapatra AK, Gupta PK, Ravi RR. Craniofacial surgery and optic canal decompression in adult fibrous dysplasia. Neurol India 2003;51(1): 123–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Messaoud R, Zaouali S, Ladjimi A, et al. Compressive optic neuropathy caused by fibrous dysplasia. J Fr Ophtalmol 2003;26(6): 631–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Chen YR, Wong FH, Hsueh C, Lo LJ. Computed tomography characteristics of nonsyndromic craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. Chang Gung Med J 2002;25(1):1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Shah ZK, Peh WC, Koh WL, Shek TW. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances of fibrous dysplasia. Br J Radiol 2005;78(936): 1104–1115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Chen YR, Breidahl A, Chang CN. Optic nerve decompression in fibrous dysplasia: indications, efficacy, and safety. Plast Reconstr Surg 1997;99(1):22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Miller NR, Newman NJ, editors. The essentials: Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology, 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Cohen ME, Duffner PK. Tumors of the diencephalon and optic pathway. In: Cohen ME, Duffner PK. Brain tumors in children: principles, diagnosis, and treatment, 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Dutton JJ. Gliomas of the anterior visual pathway. Surv Ophthalmol 1994;38(5):427–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lubs ML, Bauer MS, Formas ME, Djokic B. Lisch nodules in neurofibromatosis type 1. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(18):1264–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Thiagalingam S, Flaherty M, Billson F, North K. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic pathway gliomas: follow-up of 54 patients. Ophthalmology 2004;111(3):568–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Listernick R, Charrow J, Greenwald M, Mets M. Natural history of optic pathway tumors in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a longitudinal study. J Pediatr 1994;125(1):63–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Listernick R, Darling C, Greenwald M, Strauss L, Charrow J. Optic pathway tumors in children: the effect of neurofibromatosis type 1 on clinical manifestations and natural history. J Pediatr 1995;127(5):718–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Deliganis AV, Geyer JR, Berger MS. Prognostic significance of type 1 neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen disease) in childhood optic glioma. Neurosurgery 1996;38(6):1114–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Packer RJ, Bilaniuk LT, Cohen BH, et al. Intracranial visual pathway gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromatosis 1988; 1(4):212–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Stern J, Jakobiec FA, Housepian EM. The architecture of optic nerve gliomas with and without neurofibromatosis. Arch Ophthalmol 1980; 98(3):505–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Anonymous. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: neurofibromatosis. Bethesda, MD, USA, July 13–15, 1987. Neurofibromatosis 1988;1(3):172-8.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lewis RA, Gerson LP, Axelson KA, Riccardi VM, Whitford RP. von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. II. Incidence of optic gliomata. Ophthalmology 1984;91(8):929–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Garvey M, Packer RJ. An integrated approach to the treatment of chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas. J Neuro-Oncol 1996;28(2–3):167–183.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Balcer LJ, Liu GT, Heller G, et al. Visual loss in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic pathway gliomas: relation to tumor location by magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Ophthalmol 2001;131(4):442–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Gayre GS, Scott IU, Feuer W, Saunders TG, Siatkowski RM. Long-term visual outcome in patients with anterior visual pathway gliomas. J Neuro-Ophthalmol 2001;21(1):1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Brand WN, Hoover SV. Optic glioma in children. Review of 16 cases given megavoltage radiation therapy. Childs Brain 1979;5(5): 459–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Miller NR, Iliff WJ, Green WR. Evaluation and management of gliomas of the anterior visual pathways. Brain 1974;97(4):743–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Wright JE, McNab AA, McDonald WI. Optic nerve glioma and the management of optic nerve tumours in the young. Br J Ophthalmol 1989;73(12):967–974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Hoyt WF, Fletcher WA, Imes RK. Chiasmal gliomas. Appearance and long-term changes demonstrated by computerized tomography. Prog Exp Tumor Res 1987;30:113–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hoyt WF, Baghdassarian SA. Optic glioma of childhood. Natural history and rationale for conservative management. Br J Ophthalmol 1969;53(12):793–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Myles ST, Murphy SB. Gliomas of the optic nerve and chiasm. Can J Ophthalmol 1973;8(4):508–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Hovland KR, Ellis PP. Hemorrhagic glaucoma with optic nerve glioma. Arch Ophthalmol 1966;75(6):806–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Buchanan TA, Hoyt WF. Optic nerve glioma and neovascular glaucoma: report of a case. Br J Ophthalmol 1982;66(2):96–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Donaldson DD. Atlas of external diseases of the eye: anterior chamber, iris, and ciliary body. St. Louis: Mosby; 1973.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Rush JA, Younge BR, Campbell RJ, MacCarty CS. Optic glioma. Long-term follow-up of 85 histopathologically verified cases. Ophthalmology 1982;89(11):1213–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Davis PC, Hoffman JC Jr, Weidenheim KM. Large hypothalamic and optic chiasm gliomas in infants: difficulties in distinction. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1984;5(5):579–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    De Sousa AL, Kalsbeck JE, Mealey J Jr, Ellis FD, Muller J. Optic chiasmatic glioma in children. Am J Ophthalmol 1979;87(3):376–381.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Borit A, Richardson EP Jr. The biological and clinical behaviour of pilocytic astrocytomas of the optic pathways. Brain 1982;105(pt 1):161–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Albright AL, Sclabassi RJ, Slamovits TL, Bergman I. Spasmus nutans associated with optic gliomas in infants. J Pediatr 1984;105(5): 778–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    DeSousa AL, Kalsbeck JE, Mealey J Jr, Fitzgerald J. Diencephalic syndrome and its relation to opticochiasmatic glioma: review of twelve cases. Neurosurgery 1979;4(3):207–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Laue L, Comite F, Hench K, Loriaux DL, Cutler GB Jr, Pescovitz OH. Precocious puberty associated with neurofibromatosis and optic gliomas. Treatment with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue. Am J Dis Child 1985; 139(11):1097–1100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kingsley DP, Kendall BE. CT of the adverse effects of therapeutic radiation of the central nervous system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1981; 2(5):453–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Imes RK, Hoyt WF. Magnetic resonance imaging signs of optic nerve gliomas in neurofibromatosis 1. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;111(6): 729–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Jakobiec FA, Depot MJ, Kennerdell JS, et al. Combined clinical and computed tomographic diagnosis of orbital glioma and meningioma. Ophthalmology 1984;91(2):137–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Fletcher WA, Imes RK, Hoyt WF. Chiasmal gliomas: appearance and long-term changes demonstrated by computerized tomography. J Neurosurg 1986;65(2):154–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Haik BG, Saint Louis L, Bierly J, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of optic nerve gliomas. Ophthalmology 1987;94(6): 709–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Brodsky MC. The “pseudo-CSF” signal of orbital optic glioma on magnetic resonance imaging: a signature of neurofibromatosis. Surv Ophthalmol 1993;38(2):213–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Seiff SR, Brodsky MC, MacDonald G, Berg BO, Howes EL Jr, Hoyt WF. Orbital optic glioma in neurofibromatosis. Magnetic resonance diagnosis of perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis. Arch Ophthalmol 1987;105(12):1689–1692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Imes RK, Hoyt WF. Childhood chiasmal gliomas: update on the fate of patients in the 1969 San Francisco Study. Br J Ophthalmol 1986;70(3):179–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Duffner PK, Cohen ME, Myers MH, Heise HW. Survival of children with brain tumors: SEER Program, 1973–1980. Neurology 1986;36(5): 597–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Rootman J. Diseases of the orbit: a multidisciplinary approach. London: Lippincott; 1988.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Marquardt MD, Zimmerman LE. Histopathology of meningiomas and gliomas of the optic nerve. Hum Pathol 1982;13(3):226–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Stern J, Jakobiec FA, Housepian EM. The architecture of optic nerve gliomas with and without neurofibromatosis. Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98(3):505–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Wilson WB, Finkel RS, McCleary L, Dreisbach JN, Rak K. Large cystic optic glioma. Neurology 1990;40(12):1898–1900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Goodman SJ, Rosenbaum AL, Hasso A, Itabashi H. Large optic nerve glioma with normal vision. Arch Ophthalmol 1975;93(10):991–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    North American Study Group for Optic Glioma. Tumor spread in unilateral optic glioma: study report no. 2. Neurofibromatosis 1989(2):195.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Bruggers CS, Friedman HS, Phillips PC, et al. Leptomeningeal dissemination of optic pathway gliomas in three children. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;111(6):719–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Poussaint TY, Barnes PD, Nichols K, et al. Diencephalic syndrome: clinical features and imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18(8): 1499–1505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Liu GT, Lessell S. Spontaneous visual improvement in chiasmal gliomas. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;114(2):193–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Parazzini C, Triulzi F, Bianchini E, et al. Spontaneous involution of optic pathway lesions in neurofibromatosis type 1: serial contrast MR evaluation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1995;16(8): 1711–1718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Listernick R, Louis DN, Packer RJ, Gutmann DH. Optic pathway gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis 1: consensus statement from the NF1 Optic Pathway Glioma Task Force. Ann Neurol 1997;41(2):143–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Listernick R, Charrow J, Greenwald MJ, Esterly NB. Optic gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis type 1. J Pediatr 1989;114(5):788–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Listernick R, Ferner RE, Piersall L, Sharif S, Gutmann DH, Charrow J. Late-onset optic pathway tumors in children with neurofibromatosis 1. Neurology 2004;63(10):1944–1946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Schmandt SM, Packer RJ. Treatment of lowgrade pediatric gliomas. Curr Opin Oncol 2000; 12(3):194–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Parsa CF, Hoyt CS, Lesser RL, et al. Spontaneous regression of optic gliomas: thirteen cases documented by serial neuroimaging. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119(4):516–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Glaser JS, Hoyt WF, Corbett J. Visual morbidity with chiasmal glioma. Long-term studies of visual fields in untreated and irradiated cases. Arch Ophthalmol 1971;85(1):3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Wisoff JH, Boyett JM, Berger MS, et al. Current neurosurgical management and the impact of the extent of resection in the treatment of malignant gliomas of childhood: a report of the Children’s Cancer Group trial no. CCG-945. J Neurosurg 1998;89(1):52–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Janss AJ, Grundy R, Cnaan A, et al. Optic pathway and hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas in children younger than age 5 years with a 6-year follow-up. Cancer (Phila) 1995;75(4): 1051–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Saving KL, Kimler BF, Vats TS. Intraperitoneal bleomycin for ventriculoperitoneal spread of a hypothalamic astrocytoma. Cancer Drug Deliv 1986;3(3):205–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Trigg ME, Swanson JD, Letellier MA. Metastasis of an optic glioma through a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Cancer (Phila) 1983;52(4):599–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    West GA, Berger MS, Geyer JR. Childhood optic pathway tumors associated with ascites following ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Pediatr Neurosurg 1994;21(4):254–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Garvey M, Packer RJ. An integrated approach to the treatment of chiasatic-hypothalamic gliomas. J Neuro-Oncol 1996;28:167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Constine LS, Woolf PD, Cann D, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction after radiation for brain tumors. N Engl J Med 1993;328(2): 87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Cappelli C, Grill J, Raquin M, et al. Long-term follow up of 69 patients treated for optic pathway tumours before the chemotherapy era. Arch Dis Child 1998;79(4):334–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Grill J, Couanet D, Cappelli C, et al. Radiationinduced cerebral vasculopathy in children with neurofibromatosis and optic pathway glioma. Ann Neurol 1999;45(3):393–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Tao ML, Barnes PD, Billett AL, et al. Childhood optic chiasm gliomas: radiographic response following radiotherapy and long-term clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997; 39(3):579–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Packer RJ. Chemotherapy: low-grade gliomas of the hypothalamus and thalamus. Pediatr Neurosurg 2000;32(5):259–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Hoyt WF, Meshel LG, Lessell S, Schatz NJ, Suckling RD. Malignant optic glioma of adulthood. Brain 1973;96(1):121–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Harper CG, Stewart-Wynne EG. Malignant optic gliomas in adults. Arch Neurol 1978; 35(11):731–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Spoor TC, Kennerdell JS, Martinez AJ, Zorub D. Malignant gliomas of the optic nerve pathways. Am J Ophthalmol 1980;89(2): 284–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Hamilton AM, Garner A, Tripathi RC, Sanders MD. Malignant optic nerve glioma. Report of a case with electron microscope study. Br J Ophthalmol 1973;57(4):253–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Albers GW, Hoyt WF, Forno LS, Shratter LA. Treatment response in malignant optic glioma of adulthood. Neurology 1988;38(7):1071–1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Brodovsky S, ten Hove MW, Pinkerton RM, Ludwin SK, Smith RM. An enhancing optic nerve lesion: malignant glioma of adulthood. Can J Ophthalmol 1997;32(6):409–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Hufnagel TJ, Kim JH, Lesser R, et al. Malignant glioma of the optic chiasm eight years after radiotherapy for prolactinoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106(12):1701–1705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Millar WS, Tartaglino LM, Sergott RC, Friedman DP, Flanders AE. MR of malignant optic glioma of adulthood. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1995;16(8):1673–1676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Dario A, Iadini A, Cerati M, Marra A. Malignant optic glioma of adulthood. Case report and review of the literature. Acta Neurol Scand 1999;100(5):350–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Gritzman MC, Snyckers FD, Proctor NS. Ganglioglioma of the optic nerve. A case report. S Afr Med J 1983;63(22):863–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Lu WY, Goldman M, Young B, Davis DG. Optic nerve ganglioglioma. Case report. J Neurosurg 1993;78(6):979–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Wahl RW, Dillard SH Jr. Multiple ganglioneuromas of the central nervous system. Arch Pathol 1972;94(2):158–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Terry TL, Dunphy EB. Metastatic carcinoma in both optic nerves simulating retrobulbar neuritis. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;10:611–614.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Katz JL, Valsamis MP, Jampel RS. Ocular signs in diffuse carcinomatous meningitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1961;52:681–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Fischer-Williams M, Bosanquet FD, Daniel PM. Carcinomatosis of the meninges; a report of three cases. Brain 1955;78(1):42–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Little JR, Dale AJ, Okazaki H. Meningeal carcinomatosis. Clinical manifestations. Arch Neurol 1974;30(2):138–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Olson ME, Chernik NL, Posner JB. Leptomeningeal metastasis from systemic cancer: a report of 47 cases. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1971;96: 291–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Susac JO, Smith JL, Powell JO. Carcinomatous optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1973;76(5): 672–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Appen RE, de Venecia G, Selliken JH, Giles LT. Meningeal carcinomatosis with blindness. Am J Ophthalmol 1978;86(5):661–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Samuels MA, Feske SK. Office practice of neurology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2003.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Shields JA, Shields CL. Intraocular tumors: a text and atlas. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1992.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Ferry AP, Font RL. Carcinoma metastatic to the eye and orbit. I. A clinicopathologic study of 227 cases. Arch Ophthalmol 1974;92(4): 276–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Singh AD. Metastatic neoplasms in the optic disc: the 1999 Bjerrum Lecture: part 2. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118(2): 217–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Mack HG, Jakobiec FA. Isolated metastases to the retina or optic nerve. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1997;37(4):251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS, Foos RY. Isolated metastasis to the optic nerve. Surv Ophthalmol 1981;26:75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Spalton DJ, Hitchings RA, Hunter PA, editors; Tan JCH, associate editor; Harry J, pathology advisor. Atlas of clinical ophthalmology. Philadelphia; Edinburgh: Elsevier Mosby; 2005.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Lester EP, Ultman JE. Lymphoma. In: William WJ, Beutlar E, Erslev AJ, editors. Hematology. New York: McGraw Hill; 1990.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Akpek EK, Ahmed I, Hochberg FH, et al. Intraocular-central nervous system lymphoma: clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes. Ophthalmology 1999;106(9):1805–1810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Peterson K, Gordon KB, Heinemann MH, DeAngelis LM. The clinical spectrum of ocular lymphoma. Cancer (Phila) 1993;72(3):843–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Davis JL, Miller DM, Ruiz P. Diagnostic testing of vitrectomy specimens. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;140(5):822–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Akpek EK, Foster CS. Primary intraocular lymphoma with a low interleukin 10 to interleukin 6 ratio and heterogeneous IgH gene arrangement. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118(5): 731–732.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Lanska DJ, Lanska MJ, Tomsak RL. Unilateral optic neuropathy in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Neurology 1987;37(9):1563–1564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Miller NR, Iliff WJ. Visual loss as the initial symptom in Hodgkin disease. Arch Ophthalmol 1975;93(11):1158–1161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Zaman AG, Graham EM, Sanders MD. Anterior visual system involvement in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Br J Ophthalmol 1993;77(3): 184–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Kline LB, Garcia JH, Harsh GR III. Lymphomatous optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1984;102(11):1655–1657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Allen RA, Straatsma BR. Ocular involvement in leukemia and allied disorders. Arch Ophthalmol 1961;66:490–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Rosenthal AR, Egbert PR, Wilbur JR, Probert JC. Leukemic involvement of the optic nerve. Trans Pac Coast Otoophthalmol Soc Annu Meet 1974;55:137–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Ellis W, Little HL. Leukemic infiltration of the optic nerve head. Am J Ophthalmol 1973; 75(5):867–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Nikaido H, Mishima H, Ono H, Choshi K, Dohy H. Leukemic involvement of the optic nerve. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;105(3):294–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Rosenthal AR. Ocular manifestations of leukemia. A review. Ophthalmology 1983;90(8): 899–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Kincaid MC, Green WR. Ocular and orbital involvement in leukemia. Surv Ophthalmol 1983;27(4):211–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Brown GC, Shields JA, Augsburger JJ, Serota FT, Koch P. Leukemic optic neuropathy. Int Ophthalmol 1981;3(2):111–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Wiznia RA, Rose A, Levy AL. Occlusive microvascular retinopathy with optic disc and retinal neovascularization in acute lymphocytic leukemia. Retina 1994;14(3):253–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Cramer SC, Glaspy JA, Efird JT, Louis DN. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and the central nervous system: a clinical and pathological study. Neurology 1996;46(1):19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Clarke E. Cranial and intracranial myelomas. Brain 1954;77(1):61–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Bourdette DN, Rosenberg NL. Infiltrative orbitopathy, optic disk edema, and POEMS. Neurology 1984;34(4):532–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Galetta SL, Stadtmauer EA, Hicks DG, Raps EC, Plock G, Oberholtzer JC. Reactive lymphohistiocytosis with recurrence in the optic chiasm. J Clin Neuro-Ophthalmol 1991;11(1):25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Anthony JJ. Malignant lymphoma associated with hydantoin drugs. Arch Neurol 1970;22(5): 450–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Laties AM, Scheie HG. Sarcoid granuloma of the optic disk: evolution of multiple small tumors. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1970;68: 219–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Zajicek JP, Scolding NJ, Foster O, et al. Central nervous system sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management. Q J Med 1999;92(2):103–117.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Mayers M. Ocular sarcoidosis. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1990;30(4):257–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Beardsley TL, Brown SV, Sydnor CF, Grimson BS, Klintworth GK. Eleven cases of sarcoidosis of the optic nerve. Am J Ophthalmol 1984; 97(1):62–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Ing EB, Garrity JA, Cross SA, Ebersold MJ. Sarcoid masquerading as optic nerve sheath meningioma. Mayo Clin Proc 1997;72(1):38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Graham EM, Ellis CJ, Sanders MD, McDonald WI. Optic neuropathy in sarcoidosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986;49(7):756–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Power WJ, Neves RA, Rodriguez A, PedrozaSeres M, Foster CS. The value of combined serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and gallium scan in diagnosing ocular sarcoidosis. Ophthalmology 1995;102(12):2007–2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Gass JD, Olson CL. Sarcoidosis with optic nerve and retinal involvement. A clinicopathologic case report. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1973;77(6):OP739–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Johns CJ, Michele TM. The clinical management of sarcoidosis. A 50-year experience at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Medicine (Baltim) 1999;78(2):65–111.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Kennerdell JS, Dresner SC. The nonspecific orbital inflammatory syndromes. Surv Ophthalmol 1984;29(2):93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Purvin V, Kawasaki A, Jacobson DM. Optic perineuritis: clinical and radiographic features. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119(9):1299–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Fay AM, Kane SA, Kazim M, Millar WS, Odel JG. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic perineuritis. J Neuro-Ophthalmol 1997;17(4):247–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Margo CE, Levy MH, Beck RW. Bilateral idiopathic inflammation of the optic nerve sheaths. Light and electron microscopic findings. Ophthalmology 1989;96(2):200–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Rush JA, Kennerdell JS, Martinez AJ. Primary idiopathic inflammation of the optic nerve. Am J Ophthalmol 1982;93(3):312–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Schlernitzauer DA, Hodges FJ III, Bagan M. Tuberculoma of the left optic nerve and chiasm. Arch Ophthalmol 1971;85(1):75–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Lana-Peixoto MA, Bambirra EA, Pittella JE. Optic nerve tuberculoma. A case report. Arch Neurol 1980;37(3):186–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Iraci G, Giordano R, Gerosa M, Pardatscher K, Tomazzoli L. Tuberculoma of the anterior optic pathways. J Neurosurg 1980;52(1):129–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Gupta RK, Gupta S, Singh D, Sharma B, Kohli A, Gujral RB. MR imaging and angiography in tuberculous meningitis. Neuroradiology 1994; 36(2):87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Kox LF, Kuijper S, Kolk AH. Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by polymerase chain reaction. Neurology 1995;45(12): 2228–2232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Ranglione WC, O’Brien RJ. Tuberculosis. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, et al., editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Subsai K, Kanoksri S, Siwaporn C, Helen L. Neurological complications in AIDS patients: the 1-year retrospective study in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Eur J Neurol 2004;11(11): 755–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Rex JH, Larsen RA, Dismukes WE, Cloud GA, Bennett JE. Catastrophic visual loss due to Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. Medicine (Baltim) 1993;72(4):207–224.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Kestelyn P, Taelman H, Bogaerts J, et al. Ophthalmic manifestations of infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;116(6):721–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Cohen DB, Glasgow BJ. Bilateral optic nerve cryptococcosis in sudden blindness in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology 1993;100(11):1689–1694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Kupfer C, McCrane E. A possible cause of decreased vision in cryptococcal meningitis. Invest Ophthalmol 1974;13(10):801–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Maslin J, Morand JJ, Menard G, Camparo P. Cryptococcosis. Med Trop (Mars) 2002;62(5): 480–483.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Ofner S, Baker RS. Visual loss in cryptococcal meningitis. J Clin Neuro-Ophthalmol 1987;7(1): 45–48.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Tan CT. Intracranial hypertension causing visual failure in cryptococcus meningitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51(7):944–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Mathews VP, Alo PL, Glass JD, Kumar AJ, McArthur JC. AIDS-related CNS cryptococcosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1992;13(5):1477–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Brown RW, Clarke RJ, Gonzales MF. Cytologic detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid. Rapid screening methods. Acta Cytol 1985;29(2):151–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Sugar AM, Stern JJ, Dupont B. Overview: treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12(suppl 3):S338–348.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Banta JT, Davis JL, Lam BL. Presumed toxoplasmosic anterior optic neuropathy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2002;10(3):201–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Marmor MF, Egbert PR, Egbert BM, Marmor JB. Optic nerve head involvement with cytomegalovirus in an adult with lymphoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1978;96(7):1252–1254.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane W. Chan
    • 1
  1. 1.Ophthalmology and NeurologyUniversity of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations